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Condensed NEO-PI test

Condensed NEO-PI test

I'm looking for a condensed form of the NEO-PI test. Current short forms come in at 40-50 questions, I'm wondering if it's possible to achieve a very basic degree of accuracy with 20 items.


There is a very short 10 item questionaire. The BFI-10 (see Rammstedt & John, 2007). I have never used it on my own, but i just read through it quickly. Although it seems fairly acceptable. So, if you want to use it, you should definitely read the article carefully.

Regarding your question: I would answer a careful 'yes'. In some cases it is possible to achieve a very basic degree of accuracy with just using a few items. However, this highly depends on the way the test is constructed and the kind of construct you want to investigate. The broader your construct, the more items you will need in order to account for every facet appropriately (e.g. a very broad personality aspect like 'extraversion' vs. a specific facet like 'assertiveness'). Furthermore, the longer your test, the better the reliability will tend to be (see Spearman-Brown Formula).

To sum up: It depends on the situation whether or not a short questionnaire can be basically accurate. You should always check for it's reliability and validity.

Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of research in Personality, 41(1), 203-212.


If your aim is to measure the Big 5 only, then perhaps 4 or 5 items per factor will give you a rough idea. If you're planning on publishing the research, then I'd strongly encourage you get at least 8 items per factor. The IPIP website has a range of options for measuring the Big 5 with different length inventories: http://ipip.ori.org/newMultipleconstructs.htm There are many other Big 5 instruments available including the BFI and BFI 2.

If you need full facet-level measurement (i.e., the 30 facets), then I'd encourage you to use the full length instrument.


Freudian Personality Type Test

Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud theorised that our personality development is based on childhood events and labelled personality types such as anal retentive and oral. Find out your personality type by answering these questions:

Find out if you're fixated at one of Freud's stages - take the test. (Complete report available on subscription)

Select the most appropriate answer for each of the following stages. Be honest in your answers, as this will improve the accuracy of the report (requires registration).

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University of Central Arkansas

University of Central Arkansas

University of Central Arkansas

University of Central Arkansas

Summary

The NEO-PI-R is a 240-item personality instrument that measures the five factors in the Five Factor Model. It consists of 30 eight-item facet scales, 6 for each of the five basic personality factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). Responses are recorded on a five-point Likert-type scale, from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. Overall, NEO-PI-R's domain factors and facet scales have good internal consistency reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities. Its validity has been established by a great amount of research that has supported the universality of the five-factor structure and the relationship of factor and facet scores with outcome variables. In spite of a lack of validity scales to detect response distortion, NEO-PI-R has been widely used in both research and practice in areas of personality psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, career development and counseling, clinical psychology, and healthcare.


Pooh Pathology Test

Professors Dr. Sarah E. Shea (M.D.), Dr. Kevin Gordon (M.D.) and associates studied the characters of Winnie the Pooh and concluded that each of them could be linked to a definite psychiatric diagnosis.

Which Winnie the Pooh character do you resemble? For each of the following statements, indicate how well it applies to you below.

Question 1 of 33

I often think that interactions with other people are just more trouble than they're worth.

The IDRlabs Pooh Pathology Test is the property of IDRlabs International. The original research was carried out by Shea, S. E., Gordon, K., Hawkins, A., Kawchuk, J., & Smith., D. and published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163(12).

Ours is one of the few free tests that is subjected to statistical controls and validation. Even so, please keep in mind that tests are merely indicators – a first peek at the index to get you started.

Personality Tests, Team Role Tests, and Career Tests, whether they are professional or "official" tests like the MBTI® (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®), the NEO PI-R, Five Factor Model Test, or free online Winnie the Pooh personality tests like this one, are merely indicators to help you find your personal outlook on the relevant indices measured. No test ever devised can designate your personality style with complete accuracy or reliability and no personality test can replace familiarizing yourself with the works of the relevant theories in the field.

As the publishers of this free online Winnie the Pooh personality test that allows you to discover your personality type as linked to one of seven characters from Winnie the Pooh, we have endeavored to make the test as reliable, valid, accurate, and complete as possible.

Like other personality style tests, such as our DSM Test, Psychopathy Test, Dark Triad Test, and Dark Core Test, as well as other such professional, accurate instruments (with which the present test should not be confused), our free online test is subjected to statistical controls and validation in order to make the results accurate and trustworthy.

The authors of this free online Winnie the Pooh test are certified in the use of numerous personality tests and have worked professionally with psychometrics, typology, and personality testing. Prior to using our free Winnie the Pooh test, please note that while some of the results provided may be compatible with the results of other tests and training materials, this test should not be confused with official trademarked tests such as the ones mentioned above. The results of our free online Winnie the Pooh test are provided "as-is", for free, and should not be construed as providing professional or certified advice of any kind. For more, please consult our Terms of Service.


Personality Test Center

Follow this link if you wish to complete the original IPIP-NEO.

Short version of the IPIP-NEO

  • The short IPIP-NEO was designed to measure exactly the same traits as the original IPIP-NEO, but more efficiently with fewer items.
  • The short version of the IPIP-NEO inventory uses 120 items from the original inventory.
  • Most people complete the inventory in 15-25 minutes.
  • Responses from over 20,000 persons were used to insure that the short version possesses acceptable measurement reliability.
  • Although the short version meets professional standards of reliability, the longer version is even more reliable.
  • The short IPIP-NEO provides an alternative for persons who do not have time to complete the original inventory.
  • Persons may also wish to try the short version if they experience difficulty receiving results from the scoring programs of the original IPIP-NEO.

Follow this link if you wish to complete the shorter version of the IPIP-NEO.


Freudian Personality Type Test

Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud theorised that our personality development is based on childhood events and labelled personality types such as anal retentive and oral. Find out your personality type by answering these questions:

Find out if you're fixated at one of Freud's stages - take the test. (Complete report available on subscription)

Select the most appropriate answer for each of the following stages. Be honest in your answers, as this will improve the accuracy of the report (requires registration).

Most Read

Which Archetype Are You? Discover which Jungian Archetype your personality matches with this archetype test.

Are You Angry? Take our 5-minute anger test to find out if you're angry!

Windows to the Soul What can a person's eyes tell you about what they are thinking?

Are You Stressed? Measure your stress levels with this 5-minute stress test.

Attachment & Relationships How do our infant relationships affect those we have as we grow older?

Memory Like A Goldfish? Take Psychologist World's 5-minute memory test to measure your memory.

31 Defense Mechanisms A look at common defense mechanisms we employ to protect the ego.

Slave To Your Role? To what extent are people controlled by their roles in society?

Personality Quizzes

Which Archetype Are You? Discover which Jungian Archetype your personality matches with this archetype test.

Are You Angry? Take our 5-minute anger test to find out if you're angry!

Are You Stressed? Measure your stress levels with this 5-minute stress test.

Memory Like A Goldfish? Take Psychologist World's 5-minute memory test to measure your memory.

Are You Fixated? Discover your Freudian personality type with our Fixation Test.


The NEO Personality Inventory uses the ‘Five-Factor Model’ (also known as the ‘Big Five Personality Test’) to measure personality traits. This theory suggests that each person’s personality boils down to five core areas – and the test examines these separate areas of personality to draw conclusions.

The NEO-PI test grew out of academic psychology work carried out in the 1970s by Costa & McCrae who developed the ‘five trait’ model, following on from work that started in the 1920s.

By 1978 their work had led them to conclude that there were three broad personality traits: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E) and then Openness (O) – which they called ‘Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Inventory’ or ‘NEO-I’.

Further work led to the addition of Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C), with the test then renamed ‘NEO Personality Inventory’ or ‘NEO-PI’.

Further iterations to the model were developed by the pair during the 1980s and 1990s, including adding various subsections. The model currently used by academics, clinicians and recruiters is the ‘NEO PI-3’ and can be used by adolescents as young as 10, as well as those for whom English is not their first language.

A shortened version named ‘NEO FFI-R’ (‘Five Factor Inventory’) is also available.

As Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E) Openness (O) Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C) can also spell out OCEAN or CANOE, you may also see it referred to by those acronyms.


The PAI® (Personality Assessment Inventory) is for identifying psychopathological syndromes and providing information relevant for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening for adult psychopathology. It may be only be utilized by licensed individuals. Use it to identify:

This test provides the answers you need to make informed decisions.

Want more information about this test? Get it now. Please complete the request form on the MORE INFO & BUY TEST tab and we’ll reply promptly.

What does it do and what problem does it solve?

The PAI® (Personality Assessment Inventory) is a clinical tool requiring specific user pre-qualifications in order to purchase it. The PAI designed to aid in generating information for clinicians to use for diagnosis, treatment and screening for psychopathology. It is not suitable for employment screening uses. Use the Search function (upper right) to find similar tests including the “PAI for Law Enforcement” and “PAI – Adolescent”.

Since its introduction, the PAI has been recognized as one of the most important innovations in the field of clinical assessment. This objective inventory of adult personality assesses psychopathological syndromes and provides information relevant for clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening for psychopathology.

Purpose: Get a comprehensive assessment of adult psychopathology
Age range: 18 to 89 years
Admin: Individual or group
Admin time: 50-60 minutes to administer 15-20 minutes to score
Scoring time: 20 minutes
Qualification level: C

Features and benefits of the PAI® (Personality Assessment Inventory)

  • Unique, efficient scale structure. All 22 scales are nonoverlapping, promoting high discriminant validity. Scale development was content-driven.
  • Fast, cost-effective administration. Clients generally complete the 344 items in less than an hour.
  • Can be used with low-reading level populations. The PAI requires only a 4th-grade reading level an audio administration CD is also available.
  • No scoring keys needed. A two-part carbonless Answer Sheet provides scores for all 344 items.
  • Hand-scoring is fast and easy. Scales and subscales can be hand scored in only 15-20 minutes.
  • Provides strategies for interpretation. The Professional Manual includes an expanded discussion of administration considerations and a variety of strategies for the interpretation of clinical data.
  • Portable materials. The handy PAI Administration Folio provides a hard surface for both the Item Booklet and Answer Sheet for situations in which no desk or tabletop is available.

Test structure

  • The 344 PAI items constitute 22 nonoverlapping scales covering the constructs most relevant to a broad-based assessment of mental disorders: four validity scales, 11 clinical scales, five treatment scales, and two interpersonal scales. To facilitate interpretation and to cover the full range of complex clinical constructs, 10 scales contain conceptually derived subscales.
  • Clinical scales provide critical diagnostic features of 11 important clinical constructs. These 11 scales may be divided into three broad classes of disorders: those within the neurotic spectrum, those within the psychotic spectrum, and those associated with behaviour disorder or impulse control problems.
  • Treatment scales indicate potential complications in treatment. These five scales include two indicators of potential for harm to self or others, two measures of the respondent’s environmental circumstances, and one indicator of the respondent’s motivation for treatment.
  • Interpersonal scales provide valuable information regarding the client’s relationships and interactions. Interpersonal style is assessed along two dimensions: a warmly affiliative versus a cold rejecting style, and a dominating/controlling versus a meekly submissive style.
  • Two scales assess pathology. The Borderline Features scale is the only PAI scale that has four subscales, reflecting the factorial complexity of the construct. The Antisocial Features scale includes three subscales: one assessing antisocial behaviours and the other two assessing antisocial traits.
  • Critical Items form alerts you to issues that require immediate attention. This form lists 27 items (distributed across nine content areas) that suggest behaviour or psychopathology that may demand immediate attention. They are identified as critical based on two criteria: indications of a potential crisis situation and a very low endorsement rate in normal individuals.

Technical information

  • Reliability and validity are based on data from a U.S. Census-matched normative sample of 1,000 community-dwelling adults, a sample of 1,265 patients from 69 clinical sites, and a college sample of 1,051 students.
  • Because the PAI was normed on adults in a variety of clinical and community settings, profiles can be compared with both normal and clinical populations. Reliability studies indicate that the PAI has a high degree of internal consistency across samples—results are stable over periods of 2-4 weeks (median alpha and test-retest correlations exceed .80 for the 22 scales). Validity studies demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity with more than 50 other measures of psychopathology.

Other Versions

A separate screener, the Personality Assessment Screener® (PAS®), saves you time and money by quickly identifying individuals who may be free from acute pathology and provides rapid, efficient screening for 10 distinct clinical problem domains. A quick personality screener, the PAS is derived from the full-length Personality Assessment Inventory™ (PAI®) and is designed for use as a triage instrument in health care and mental health settings, corporate EAPs, and college health services. This 22-item test can help you determine the need for follow-up with a full evaluation of psychopathology, focus initial client interviews on specific problem areas, and target certain clinicals areas for follow-up testing.

  • The 22 PAS items are those from the PAI that are the most sensitive to a broad range of contemporary clinical problems.
  • Items are organized into 10 different element scores that represent 10 distinct clinical problem domains. Element raw scores are summed to determine the PAS Total score, which assesses both the potential for emotional and/or behavioural problems of clinical significance and the need for follow-up evaluation.
  • Probability (p) values, which reflect the likelihood that the respondent would obtain a problematic profile if he or she completed the full PAI, are provided for all scores.
  • Normative data are presented for a national community sample of 1,000 adults as well as for 1,246 clinical participants and 1,051 college students.

Also Available – On This Website

Note: The PAI is a C-Level Instrument – This requires All qualifications for Level B tools PLUS an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests OR license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.

Qualification Level: B • A degree from an accredited 4-year college or university in psychology or counselling related field, plus completion of coursework in test interpretation, psychometrics and measurement theory, educational statistics, or a closely related area • OR license or certification from an agency/ organization that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.

Qualification Level: C • All Level B qualifications, plus an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests • OR license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests.


NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R)

Developed as a measure of the Five Factor Model, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised uses these five dimensions – emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles – to evaluate adult personality. A purpose for this instrument is a resource for such professionals as counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, doctors, vocational counselors, and educators.

The NEO PI-R has two different forms: Forms S and Form R. In each, participants are asked to respond to 240 items using a 5-point scale. Approximately 30 to 40 minutes is required for completion.

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Paul T. Costa Jr. & Robert R. McCrae

Reliability and Validity

For the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, the test manual provides good support for both reliability and validity. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated at 0.86 to 0.95 for both the forms (self and observer). While only three of the subtests had good long-term test-retest reliability (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience), all of them had high short-term test-retest reliability. The authors and others give evidence for construct, convergent, and divergent validity. Some of this evidence was provided through correlations with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Personality Research Form, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Self Directed Search.

Where to Purchase

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.

Dissertations Using the NEO Personality Inventory

Below is a list of dissertations that use the NEO PI-R. The full version of these dissertations can be found using ProQuest.

Morgan, H. S. (2007). Personality traits as risk factors for occupational injury in health care workers. University of Florida).

Braswell, L. B. (1992). A study of the relation of personality, context, level of distress, and coping process, in army reserve nurses activated in operation desert shield. University of Georgia).

Kaplow, S. R. (1995). Dispositional antecedents of job satisfaction: An exploration of mediating processes. New York University).

Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992b). The five-factor model of personality and its relevance to personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 343-359.

Costa, P. T., & Widiger, T. A. (Eds.). (1994). Personality disorders and the five factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. View

Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five factor model. In M. R. Rosenzweig & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology (Vol. 41, pp. 417-440). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. American Psychologist, 48, 26-34.

John, O. P. (1990). The ‘Big Five’ factor taxonomy: Dimensions of personality in the natural language and in questionnaires. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 66-100). New York: Guilford Press. View

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1983). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 882-888.

Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 574-583.

Botwin, Michael D. Review of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA.


How to Pass the NEO Personality Inventory Test?

Psychological assessments are always hard to prepare for because there is no real right or wrong answer. The questions are designed to measure where the candidate falls on a scale, with no actual passing or failing grade. Candidates traits, however, need to align favorably with the employer’s needs.

As this is a personality test, there is no study guide per se, but as with all exams, familiarity does go a long way in helping test takers. Becoming familiar with the exam content increases the candidates’ confidence and reduces anxiety. Tackling NEO Personality Inventory test online practice exams, preferably with both questions and answers, can help with getting a good grasp on the content of the exam. The NEO PI-R online practice papers help by providing somewhat of a benchmark from which the candidate can work. This can be coupled with doing what is known as single trait practice, which is tailoring your preparation to zero in on traits which you want to score highest in.

The test is not timed, so there is no need to get flustered over time limits while at the assessment center.


What to Measure: The Content of Personality Assessment

Personality characteristics constitute a fuzzy set, populated by constructs as diverse as extraversion, physical attractiveness, creativity, sexual orientation, gender, and psychopathology. Yet there is some consensus, for at its core, personality is now generally conceptualized at three strata or levels of analysis. In parallel with these three levels of analysis, three goals of personality assessment can be described. The most ambitious of these is understanding, followed by explanation, then description and prediction.

Narrative Accounts

The deepest of the three strata is the life story, a set of meanings that unfolds over time and which can be linked into a narrative account. The outstanding characteristic of the life story is its individuality. Assessment at this level is aimed at an abstract understanding of the person, and typically occurs in specialized contexts such as case studies, biographies, and epitaphs. The narrative account can serve as an implicit criterion against which respondents evaluate the validity of more shallow and more quantitative assessments of personality.

Characteristic Adaptations

Characteristic adaptations represent a heterogeneous middle level of analysis. These include motives and related mechanisms such as coping and defensive styles, and cognitive factors such as schemas, plans, generalized expectancies, and beliefs. Characteristic adaptations also include developmental constructs such as stage of personality development. A prominent measure at this level is the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, a measure of ego development. Given the heterogeneity of this level, assessment of characteristic adaptations serves many functions. For heuristic purposes, however, the primary reason for assessing characteristic adaptations is to achieve an explanation of why behavior does or does not occur.

Traits

The most accessible and easily quantified level of personality is that of the trait or disposition. The primary objective when assessing personality traits or dispositions is the description and prediction of behavior.

The Meaning of Traits

Traits, the primary unit of personality description, are relatively enduring ways in which individuals differ. Assessment at the level of traits is variable centered and nomothetic, focusing on differences among individuals, as opposed to the person-centered and idiographic approach that focuses on individuals, and that typically characterizes assessment at deeper and more abstract levels of personality.

Because people differ in many ways, psychologists must decide which differences are worthy of study. While evolutionary, psychoanalytic, and behavioral perspectives have been influential in suggesting traits that are worthy of attention when assessing personality, a more pragmatic, data-driven approach has generally held sway. At the most basic level, trait attributions are made based upon simple summaries of past behavior, and because what has happened in the past is likely to recur, traits can serve as valid predictors of future behaviors. Beyond this summary approach, if one takes into account characteristics of the situation as well, traits can help explain behavior and contribute to an understanding of the person. For example, an observation that “Jane has panic attacks in crowds” might lead to an inference of the form that “Jane will not go to the party because she is agoraphobic.” Trait attributions can and frequently do go beyond the trivial and tautological.

The Five-Factor Model

Factor analytic results indicate that many of the 18,000 words used to describe personality in the English language represent variations of five basic traits. The five-factor model (FFM) and its variants provide the most important contemporary perspective on traits, effectively serving as a paradigm for contemporary research in personality assessment. The five factors, sometimes referred to as the Big Five, are generally conceived of as extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience.

Extroversion. The breadth of the five factors can leave them open to multiple interpretations, and this is particularly true for extraversion. For Jung, extraversion and intraversion describe an individual’s preferred direction of attention or focus: Extraverts focus on the external, shared world, while introverts focus on internal, idiosyncratic experiences. Eysenck offered a physiological explanation of extraversion (which he labels extroversion) based on the level of arousal of the reticular activating system. Eysenck viewed extraverts as endogenously understimulated (and so desirous of external stimulation and excitement), and introverts as overstimulated and consequently likely to seek quieter settings. An affective conception is that extraverts are more likely than introverts to experience and report positive affect. From a behavioral perspective, the most visible component of extraversion is social motivation and social skill. The combination of social interest and positive affect has given rise to the interpretation of extraversion as surgency or lively sociability.

Given the breadth of the extraversion-introversion dimension of personality, it is difficult to imagine conditions under which the dimension would not be relevant in understanding individual differences in the motivations, behaviors, and satisfactions experienced by individuals. Extraversion is measured in most comprehensive personality inventories used by psychologists.

Neuroticism. Neuroticism represents a tendency to experience negative affect, anxiety, and emotional upset its opposite may be understood as well-being, emotional stability, or adjustment. Neuroticism is associated with sensitivity to punishment rather than reward, and with behavioral inhibition rather than activation. The Americans with Disabilities Act may proscribe the explicit measurement of neuroticism in applied settings (i.e., selection) because psychological health is conceptualized as a component of physical health.

Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness is a broad factor that includes discipline, a respectful attitude towards rules, work ethic, behavioral constraint, organization, responsibility, socialization, and impulse control. Conscientiousness is the Big Five trait most closely linked with job performance, and it is associated with scores on the integrity tests that are widely used in personnel selection. The relationship between conscientiousness and social conformity has led to some confusion, for the term conscientiousness also denotes a stage in personality development characterized by the transcendence of mindless conformity and the internalization of a moral code.

Agreeableness. Agreeableness includes attributes such as likability, friendly compliance, warmth, and conformity, as well as communion, the positive core of the feminine gender role. Agreeableness is the most evaluative laden of the five factors. Because agreeableness is related to likability, observer ratings of agreeableness are more subjective and may show less interrater consensus than observer ratings of other traits.

Openness. The core of Openness to Experience includes breadth of interests, curiosity, and cultural sophistication. For some authors, this factor includes characteristics as diverse as flexibility, intelligence, political liberalism, and hypnotic susceptibility. There is both less cross-cultural generalizability and less agreement on the specific content for this factor. Openness generally appears as the smallest of the factors in statistical analyses. Nonetheless, both the core of openness and its more peripheral, less consensual components are empirically important in many settings.

Beyond the Five Factors

The five-factor model is one useful starting point for personality assessment, but additional personality characteristics have been identified that may be conceptualized as lying between, beyond, and beneath the five factors. The five factors may be thought of as geometric axes between which other sets of axes may constitute a richer or more theoretically sound framework. For example, Extraversion and Neuroticism may be rotated to the arguably more elemental concepts of Anxiety and Impulsivity. Similarly, beyond the five factors, additional traits appear to be poorly represented in the five factor space, including spirituality, attractiveness, insight, ambition, unpleasantness, manipulativeness, egotism, seductiveness, integrity, thriftiness, risk taking, and humor. Beneath the five factors lie narrower constructs that may have more predictive utility. Punctuality, in some circumstances, may be more informative than the broader trait of Conscientiousness by which it is imperfectly subsumed.

The five-factor model derives ultimately from lay usage the factor analytic methods that underpin the model provide, in principle, a nonredundant and potentially comprehensive set of tools for describing the universe of personality trait terms. However, lay usage is not the only useful source from which to derive personality characteristics, and statistical elegance is not the only meaningful criterion governing the selection of a variables. For these reasons, many psychologists continue to prefer other sets of constructs, including those based on the theoretical positions outlined by Jung, Murray, Eysenck, and Gough. These positions are considered in the next section.


Watch the video: Dielectric Absorption Factor, Polarization Index and DAS Curve. (January 2022).