Information

Is the concept of neuroplasticity applicable to visual cortex and how does it affect visual perception?

Is the concept of neuroplasticity applicable to visual cortex and how does it affect visual perception?

I've been searching about this but all I found was this presentation, which is a bit too technical for me to understand, e.g: Visual Cortical Plasticity

In what way does neuroplasticity affect the visual cortex?

For example, a person that wears glasses, if he/she stopped using them completely or from time to time, will the visual perception and interpretation of blurred data get better by just training? Will that blur also be reduced with training?


Yes, the visual cortex is plastic, even in adults:

We measured adaptation in the responses of populations of cat V1 neurons to stimulus ensembles with markedly different statistics of stimulus orientation. We found that adaptation served two homeostatic goals. First, it maintained equality in the time-averaged responses across the population. Second, it maintained independence in selectivity across the population.

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v16/n6/full/nn.3382.html

Plasticity is invoked for encoding information during perceptual learning, by internally representing the regularities of the visual environment, which is useful for facilitating intermediate-level vision--contour integration and surface segmentation. The same mechanisms have adaptive value for functional recovery after CNS damage, such as that associated with stroke or neurodegenerative disease. A common feature to plasticity in primary visual cortex (V1) is an association field that links contour elements across the visual field. The circuitry underlying the association field includes a plexus of long-range horizontal connections formed by cortical pyramidal cells. These connections undergo rapid and exuberant sprouting and pruning in response to removal of sensory input, which can account for the topographic reorganization following retinal lesions.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841310


One great example of such plasticity is the ability of early-blind people to utilize their V1 area to read Braille:

Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans (Cohen et al., 1997)

Excerpt from the abstract:

We conclude that blindness from an early age can cause the visual cortex to be recruited to a role in somatosensory processing.


Mandatory Courses for AY2020/2021

ROT Laboratory Rotations

  1. Prepare a written summary of the aims of the rotation. Students will study original publications and discuss with the Professor in charge of the research unit to prepare the aims. The summary should be no more than one page including references and illustrations. The proposal should be submitted to the graduate school as a PDF file via Sakai. Due date 30 days after first day of term.
  2. Undertake the activities in the research unit to fulfill the aims of the rotation. The activities should be completed during the term of the rotation.
  3. Participate in research unit meetings and seminars during the rotation. The student is expected to attend and as appropriate, ask questions, and join discussions.
  4. Present the results of the rotation activity as an oral presentation to the laboratory members. One of the three rotations will be presented as an oral presentation to the entire class as a part of Professional Development.
  5. Submit a written report on the rotation. It is understood that results cannot be expected in so short a time, but the background, including a short literature review, methods used, and activity carried out in the research unit should be described using the scientific language of the field. The report is due 14 days after the end of term. The Professor of the research unit will grade the report.
  6. Each student will do a minimum of three laboratory rotations, one per term.

All students will undertake at least three rotations. Assignment of rotations is made by the Graduate School, following information provided by the student in the pre-enrollment survey and from discussions during interview. Final approval of the selection of rotations will be given by the Dean, taking into account the availability of supervision and the overall program of the student. At least one of the rotations shall be outside the specific field of the student’s studies at OIST.

To be able to discuss the scientific questions addressed in the research unit using the appropriate scientific language of the field, and to be aware of and able to explain the methods used in the research unit. The experience gained in these lab rotations will guide the student in their later choice of thesis laboratory.

Based on written report, participation in the laboratory, and oral presentation. The supervisor (Professor of the Unit) will report to the Dean on the student’s attendance and participation in the laboratory meetings.

PRO Thesis Proposal

Students work in the laboratory of the Professor under whom they wish to conduct their thesis research. They undertake and write up preliminary research work, complete an in-depth literature review and prepare a research plan. The preliminary research work should include methods the students will use in their thesis research. The literature review should be in the area of their thesis topic and be of publishable quality. The research plan should comprise a projected plan of experiments to answer a specific question(s) and place the expected outcomes against the current state of knowledge, and should take into account the resources and techniques available at OIST. The research data generated in this proposal may be included in the subsequent doctoral thesis, if appropriate.

Students prepare a proposal for the research they wish to pursue toward the submission of an independent, novel doctoral thesis.

Dean and Thesis Committee Evaluation

PCD1 Professional and Career Development I

This course aims to develop knowledge and skills important for leadership in scientific research and education. The three main components of the course are (1) weekly seminars covering basic principles of research conduct and ethics, scientific communication, and aspects of science in society, (2) a cross-disciplinary group project, and (3) practical experience to develop presentation and teaching skills.

Seminars are held every Friday afternoon throughout the year. Seminars last 1 hour. It is imperative that you not only attend the seminars but that you also engage by participating in discussion and asking questions. You may be assigned specific responsibilities to facilitate discussion. In order to participate in discussion well, you’ll need to prepare. This means more than simply reading the required articles. You’ll need to reflect on them as well. You will be informed how to obtain the required articles one week ahead of the seminar they will be used in.

Group Project

The group project component aims to develop skills required for effective teamwork, including leadership, project management, cooperation and creative interaction, cross-disciplinary communication, and coordination of group activity. Group project work is timetabled on Friday afternoons for two hours every second week, alternating with presentation and teaching skills training. Timing of project activity is flexible and different times may be decided by the group. The project component will require involvement in a student led group project. Projects will not be directly supervised by a faculty member, but there will be opportunities for consultation where certain expertise is required. The nature of possible projects will be explained in class but they may include development of new research tools and applications, inventions to solve problems, field studies, or creation of resources for research and learning. There will be a self-assessment requirement by group members to recognize the contributions of different members, and an overall grade based on a final presentation. A prize will be awarded for the best project.

Presentation and Teaching Skills

The presentation skill component comprises a set of opportunities for students to gain experience in giving presentations to various groups and teaching at different levels. It is timetabled on Friday afternoons for two hours every second week, alternating with group project activity, but may be arranged flexibly. Students develop skills by a range of different assignments including: acting as teaching assistants assisting with visiting student programs contributing to outreach activities presenting and participating in journal clubs and giving a presentation based on research rotations. There will be a self-assessment requirement including a report documenting activities and evaluation of the research presentation.

The aim of this course is to provide information essential to beginning one’s career as a professional scientist, and to develop skills fundamental to modern scientific practice.

Term 1 Module: Research conduct and ethics

  • laboratory procedures, conduct and safety
  • record keeping and data management
  • sharing and confidentiality
  • authorship
  • plagiarism
  • peer review
  • conflicts of interest
  • research misconduct
  • research with animals
  • research with human subjects

Term 2 Module: Scientific communication

  • scientific writing
  • poster presentations
  • scientific talks
  • communicating science to the non-specialist
  • teaching science
  • grant applications

Term 3 Module: Life in science and science in society

  • science and the law
  • intellectual property and patents
  • working in science
  • reputation/visibility/personal profile
  • funding of science
  • research and social responsibility
  • leadership in research and education
  • This course continues in the 2nd year. Students in second year are expected to attend seminars presented by guest speakers. Students in second year may also participate in additional specific training if there is a need, such as further developing presentation and writing skills.

Assessment: Attendance and participation

PCD2 Professional and Career Development II

This course will comprise a series of seminars and workshops designed to prepare OIST graduates to function effectively and responsibly in their scientific career. Beyond the initial focus of research, a responsible scientist should be able to communicate their research to the informed public, to make the most effective use of the public and private funds entrusted to them, and to understand the place of their science in its social and ethical context. Communication, media, and presentation techniques will be developed beyond the level of Professional Development I, including the tools to present and manage one’s profile online and in person. Ethical considerations of life as a scientist will be addressed by discussion, debate and case studies. Invited experts from industry, science, patent and contract law, funding bodies, and so on will share their experience in generating and securing funding, typical intellectual property and industrial cooperation concerns, the business of running a research laboratory, and working in industry. Students will work in small groups or individually to complete relevant exercises to develop the skills to manage people and money. Students will be required to attend such seminars and workshops throughout their thesis research period.

This course develops further the many competencies and values that underpin a successful career as a professional scientist.

A recurring series of seminars and workshops that extends PCD1 to more appropriate topics for research management and career development.

Participation in and contribution to the structured activities and exercises.


Healthy aging, memory subsystems and regional cerebral oxygen consumption

The present study was designed to search for concomitant age-related changes in memory subsystems, defined according to current structural theories, and resting oxygen consumption in selected brain regions. We have investigated a sample of subjects between 20 and 68 years of age and strictly screened for their good health. We applied in the same subjects a battery of neuropsychological tests selected to investigate several memory subsystems, and high-resolution positron imaging with stereotaxic localization to study a purposely limited number of cerebral structures, selected on a priori hypotheses to match the different memory subsystems.

Our results showed significant age-related changes in performance on some tests, consistent with the literature, including an increase in semantic memory and a decrease in both working memory (central executive system) and verbal episodic and explicit memory. There was also an age-related linear decrease in global brain oxygen consumption which regionally reached statistical significance for the neocortical areas and the left thalamus. There was a limited number of significant, age-independent correlations between the raw psychometric test scores and resting regional oxidative metabolism. Consistent with our present understanding of the functional anatomy of memory, the Associate Learning scores (verbal episodic and explicit memory) were positively correlated with left hippocampal and thalamic metabolism. The positive relationships found between right hippocampal metabolism and performance in the Associate Learning and the Brown-Peterson tests were less expected but would be consistent with findings from recent PET activation studies. The results from this investigation are discussed in the light of current knowledge concerning the neuropsychology and the neurobiology of both aging and memory.


Eyes - Sight - Seeing

Sight is anything that is seen with the eyes. Catch sight of to perceive with the eyes. The ability to see the visual faculty. The range of vision. The act of looking or seeing or observing.

40 million people in the world are Blind, around one in every 200 people on Earth. Another 246 million have low vision to degrees that impose moderate or severe limits. Vision loss also affects hundreds of millions more people. Often relatives, devoted to aiding those who can’t see. Many become blind after many years of slow and progressive retinal degeneration.

Blind - Sight Problems

SEE International provides sustainable medical, surgical, and educational services through volunteer ophthalmic surgeons with the objectives of restoring sight and preventing blindness to disadvantaged individuals worldwide.

Blindness is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.

Myopia or Near-sightedness is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina. This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal . Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. Severe near-sightedness increases the risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Far-Sightedness is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina. This results in close objects appearing blurry , while far objects may appear normal . As the condition worsens, objects at all distances may be blurry. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. People may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus.

Visual Impairment is a decreased ability to see that may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking. Impaired by Drugs.

Cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. A monofocal IOL is an intraocular lens with a fixed focus for one distance. A cataract doctor may select monofocal IOLs that are for near focus, for mid-distance focus, or for distant focus. Only one of these three can be selected and the focus will not change after surgery. Monofocal IOL provides focus at only one distance, a multifocal IOL provides vision across varying distances, which sacrifices the quality of distance vision due to multiple overlapping images of near and distance objects.

Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment using LED technology to measure cataracts at a molecular level.

Diabetic Retinopathy is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus. It is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries . Diabetic retinopathy affects up to 80 percent of those who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. At least 90% of new cases could be reduced with proper treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Each year in the United States, diabetic retinopathy accounts for 12% of all new cases of blindness. It is also the leading cause of blindness in people aged 20 to 64.

The Gift of Sight is working to eliminate preventable and curable blindness throughout the developing world. Himalayan Cataract Project.

Focus is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge. Although the focus is conceptually a point, physically the focus has a spatial extent, called the blur circle . This non-ideal focusing may be caused by aberrations of the imaging optics. In the absence of significant aberrations, the smallest possible blur circle is the Airy disc, which is caused by diffraction from the optical system's aperture. Aberrations tend to get worse as the aperture diameter increases, while the Airy circle is smallest for large apertures. An image, or image point or region, is in focus if light from object points is converged almost as much as possible in the image, and out of focus if light is not well converged. The border between these is sometimes defined using a "circle of confusion" criterion. A principal focus or focal point is a special focus: For a lens, or a spherical or parabolic mirror, it is a point onto which collimated light parallel to the axis is focused. Since light can pass through a lens in either direction, a lens has two focal points – one on each side. The distance in air from the lens or mirror's principal plane to the focus is called the focal length. Elliptical mirrors have two focal points: light that passes through one of these before striking the mirror is reflected such that it passes through the other. The focus of a hyperbolic mirror is either of two points which have the property that light from one is reflected as if it came from the other. Diverging (negative) lenses and convex mirrors do not focus a collimated beam to a point. Instead, the focus is the point from which the light appears to be emanating, after it travels through the lens or reflects from the mirror. A convex parabolic mirror will reflect a beam of collimated light to make it appear as if it were radiating from the focal point, or conversely, reflect rays directed toward the focus as a collimated beam. A convex elliptical mirror will reflect light directed towards one focus as if it were radiating from the other focus, both of which are behind the mirror. A convex hyperbolic mirror will reflect rays emanating from the focal point in front of the mirror as if they were emanating from the focal point behind the mirror. Conversely, it can focus rays directed at the focal point that is behind the mirror towards the focal point that is in front of the mirror as in a Cassegrain telescope.

Blurring is to make less clear and become vague or not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand.

Blurry Vision is the loss of sharpness of eyesight, making objects appear out of focus and hazy. The primary causes of blurred vision are refractive errors — nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism — or presbyopia. Blurred vision can affect both eyes, but some people experience blurry vision in one eye only.

Blur Your Eyes is to blur your vision by controlling the ciliary muscles that control the shape of the lens in your eyes. Depending on the shape of the lens, you are able to focus on objects closer or further from you. This is called accommodation.

Ciliary Muscle is the part of the eye that connects the iris to the choroid. It consists of the ciliary muscle that alters the curvature of the lens, a series of radial ciliary processes from which the lens is suspended by ligaments, and the ciliary ring that adjoins the choroid. is a ring of smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer or vascular layer that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humor into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.

Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. In this, distances vary for individuals from the far point—the maximum distance from the eye for which a clear image of an object can be seen, to the near point—the minimum distance for a clear image. Accommodation usually acts like a reflex, including as part of the accommodation-vergence reflex, but it can also be consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles vary the optical power by changing the form of the elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15 dioptres). Fish and amphibians vary the power by changing the distance between a rigid lens and the retina with muscles. The young human eye can change focus from distance (infinity) to as near as 6.5 cm from the eye. This dramatic change in focal power of the eye of approximately 15 dioptres (the reciprocal of focal length in metres) occurs as a consequence of a reduction in zonular tension induced by ciliary muscle contraction. This process can occur in as little as 224 ± 30 milliseconds in bright light. The amplitude of accommodation declines with age. By the fifth decade of life the accommodative amplitude can decline so that the near point of the eye is more remote than the reading distance. When this occurs the patient is presbyopic. Once presbyopia occurs, those who are emmetropic (do not require optical correction for distance vision) will need an optical aid for near vision those who are myopic (nearsighted and require an optical correction for distance vision), will find that they see better at near without their distance correction and those who are hyperopic (farsighted) will find that they may need a correction for both distance and near vision. Note that these effects are most noticeable when the pupil is large i.e. in dim light. The age-related decline in accommodation occurs almost universally to less than 2 dioptres by the time a person reaches 45 to 50 years, by which time most of the population will have noticed a decrease in their ability to focus on close objects and hence require glasses for reading or bifocal lenses. Accommodation decreases to about 1 dioptre at the age of 70 years. The dependency of accommodation amplitude on age is graphically summarized by Duane's classical curves.

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.

Macular Degeneration is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no symptoms. Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes. While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life. Visual hallucinations may also occur but these do not represent a mental illness.

About 170 million people worldwide live with age-related macular degeneration, which strikes one in 10 people over the age of 55, while 1.7 million people worldwide have the most common form of inherited blindness, retinitis pigmentosa, which typically leaves people blind by the age of 40.

Artificial intelligence recognizes deteriorating photoreceptors. A software based on artificial intelligence enables the precise assessment of the progression of geographic atrophy, a disease of the light sensitive retina caused by age-related macular degeneration. This innovative approach permits the fully automated measurement of the main atrophic lesions using data from optical coherence tomography, which provides three-dimensional visualization of the structure of the retina. In addition, the research team can precisely determine the integrity of light sensitive cells of the entire central retina and also detect progressive degenerative changes of the so-called photoreceptors beyond the main lesions.

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

Cortical Blindness is the total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex. Cortical blindness can be acquired or congenital, and may also be transient in certain instances.

Ophthalmic Pathology deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. Ophthalmic pathologists generally work closely with ophthalmologists.

Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects. Symptoms include difficulty reading small print, having to hold reading material farther away, headaches, and eyestrain. Different people will have different degrees of problems. Other types of refractive errors may exist at the same time as presbyopia.

Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. Which eye is focused on the object in question can switch. It may also be present occasionally or constantly. If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception. Adults may have double vision. Field of View.

Esotropia is a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a "cross-eyed" appearance. It is the opposite of Exotropia. Esotropia is sometimes erroneously called "lazy eye", which describes the condition of amblyopia—a reduction in vision of one or both eyes that is not the result of any pathology of the eye and cannot be resolved by the use of corrective lenses. Amblyopia can, however, arise as a result of esotropia occurring in childhood: In order to relieve symptoms of diplopia or double vision, the child's brain will ignore or "suppress" the image from the esotropic eye, which when allowed to continue untreated will lead to the development of amblyopia. Treatment options for esotropia include glasses to correct refractive errors (see accommodative esotropia below), the use of prisms and/or orthoptic exercises and/or eye muscle surgery. The term is from Greek eso meaning "inward" and trope meaning "a turning".

Nyctalopia is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. It is a symptom of several eye diseases. Night Blindness may exist from birth, or be caused by injury or malnutrition (for example, vitamin A deficiency). It can be described as insufficient adaptation to darkness. The most common cause of nyctalopia is retinitis pigmentosa, a disorder in which the rod cells in the retina gradually lose their ability to respond to the light.

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4. In the mammalian retina, there are two additional categories of opsins, both involved in the formation of visual images: rhodopsin and photopsin (types I, II, and III) in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells, respectively.

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells is found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye. Rods and cones are not the only light sensitive neurons in the retina.

Gene Therapy Restores Vision in Blind Mice. With single gene insertion, blind mice regain sight. Opsins make 'blind' cells light-sensitive potential human treatment within three years. People left blind by retinal degeneration have one option: electronic eye implants. Neuroscientists have now developed an alternative: gene therapy that, in tests, restored vision in blind mice. A gene for green opsin delivered via virus gave blind mice enough sight to discern patterns on an iPad at a resolution sufficient for humans to read. Given existing AAV eye therapies already approved, this new therapy could be ready for clinical trials in three years. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) engineered to target specific cells in the retina can be injected directly into the vitreous of the eye to deliver genes more precisely than can be done with wild type AAVs, which have to be injected directly under the retina. UC Berkeley neuroscientists have taken AAVs targeted to ganglion cells, loaded them with a gene for green opsin, and made the normally blind ganglion cells sensitive to light.

Dark Adaptation Threshold is a vision test that measures the adjustment of the eye occurring under low levels of illumination. When light enters the eye, it ultimately reaches the rods and cones, which are two types of cells in the retina. Rods handle vision in low light conditions and cones handle color vision and detail. The rods and cones each react differently during the DAT test, and are measured on a graph. The test determines the threshold, or minimum light intensity required to produce a visual sensation in the child's eye. In order to perform this test, the child is asked to sit in the dark for a half-hour. This allows the eyes to be most sensitive for the test. Once the eyes have fully adapted, the child stands in front of a black projection screen. Dim spots of light are projected onto the screen, one at a time, on either the right or the left side. The spots get dimmer as the test goes on. The child is asked to point to the spots until he or she can no longer distinguish them. In order to keep the child's attention on the screen, sometimes the doctor will wave a brighter light on the screen to hold the child's interest when the test becomes harder to see. When an infant is being tested, an observer with a night vision camera records the head and eye movements of the child as they look at the spots. Once the patient can no longer see the spots, the dark adapted threshold is determined. The DAT test lasts for about 10 to 15 minutes.

Tracing the many paths of vision. New study decodes the molecular diversity of neurons in the zebrafish retina. Retinal ganglion cells are the bottleneck through which all visual impressions flow from the retina to the brain.

Leber Congenital Amaurosis is an eye disorder that primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning in infancy. The visual impairment tends to be stable, although it may worsen very slowly over time. Injecting a benign virus that carries good copies of a malformed gene in the retina.

Rubbing your Eyes increases the pressure within the eyeball and this pressure activates ganglion cells in the retina in the same way as light does. Your brain doesn’t know the difference and so interprets the activation as though you were seeing light from the world outside. Rubbing your eyes can also be therapeutic. Pressing down on your eyeball can stimulate the vagus nerve, which slows down your heart rate, relieving stress. However, if you rub your eyes too often or too hard, you can cause damage in a number of ways.

Dry Eyes - Burning or Stinging Eyes: Ocular Rosacea is a manifestation of rosacea that affects the eyes and eyelids. Signs and symptoms generally consist of redness, irritation or burning of the eyes . Blepharitis is one of the most common ocular conditions characterized by inflammation, scaling, reddening, and crusting of the eyelid. Blepharitis is characterized by flaky, dandruff-like skin at the base of the eyelids. It is caused by a bacterial infection. Additional symptoms include eye redness and swelling. Dry eyes can result when the tear ducts do not produce enough tears or the right kind of tears. Dry eyes tend to occur more often in women and older people . Additional symptoms can include: Eye allergies. Dry Eye Syndrome is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dryness is a medical condition in which there is local or more generalized decrease in normal lubrication of the skin or mucous membranes. Blue Screens. Overexposure to the ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun's rays can cause eye sunburn, which is also known as photokeratitis. Pterygium is a growth of fleshy tissue on the white part of the eye. It usually occurs nearest to the nose, although it can also appear on the outer portion of the eye. It is thought to be caused by a combination of dry eyes and UV light. Allergic conjunctivitis eye allergies occur when irritating substances get into the eye. The body responds to these substances by producing histamines, which can cause burning eyes. Common triggers of eye allergies include dust, pollen, smoke, perfumes, pet dander, and foods. Other symptoms of eye allergies include: redness, tearing swelling, itching of the eyes , Eye sunburn. Blink more Often.

Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish . There may also be pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness. The affected eye may have increased tears or be " stuck shut " in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye, may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.

Ophthalmoparesis or Ophthalmoplegia is the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles. It can affect one or more of the six muscles that hold the eye in place and control its movement. There are two types of ophthalmoplegia: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and internal ophthalmoplegia.

Asthenopia or eye strain is a feeling that your eyes are tired, sore, or achy. You can feel this way after reading or looking at a computer or phone screen for a long time. This sensation develops due to prolonged use of the muscles that control your eye movements and your pupils (the dark circles of your eyes).

Styes are caused by a bacterial infection in an oil gland or hair follicle on your eyelid. These glands and follicles can get clogged with dead skin cells and other debris. Sometimes, bacteria get trapped inside and cause an infection. This results in a swollen, painful lump called a stye. Here are eight ways to speed up the healing process for styes. Use a warm compress. Clean your eyelid with mild soap and water. Use a warm tea bag. Take OTC pain medication. Avoid wearing makeup and contact lenses. Use antibiotic ointments. Massage the area to promote drainage. Get medical treatment from your doctor.

Color Blindness

Color Blindness is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color . Simple tasks such as selecting ripe fruit, choosing clothing, and reading traffic lights can be more challenging. Color blindness may also make some educational activities more difficult. However, problems are generally minor, and most people find that they can adapt. People with total color blindness (achromatopsia) may also have decreased visual acuity and be uncomfortable in bright environments. The most common cause of color blindness is an inherited problem in the development of one or more of the three sets of color-sensing cones in the eye. Males are more likely to be color blind than females, as the genes responsible for the most common forms of color blindness are on the X chromosome. As females have two X chromosomes, a defect in one is typically compensated for by the other, while males only have one X chromosome. Color blindness can also result from physical or chemical damage to the eye, optic nerve or parts of the brain. Diagnosis is typically with the Ishihara color test however, a number of other testing methods, including genetic testing, also exist. There is no cure for color blindness. Diagnosis may allow a person's teacher to change their method of teaching to accommodate the decreased ability to recognize colors. Special lenses may help people with red–green color blindness when under bright conditions. There are also mobile apps that can help people identify colors. Red–green color blindness is the most common form, followed by blue–yellow color blindness and total color blindness. Red–green color blindness affects up to 8% of males and 0.5% of females of Northern European descent. The ability to see color also decreases in old age. Being color blind may make people ineligible for certain jobs in certain countries. This may include being a pilot, train driver, crane operator, and working in the armed forces. The effect of color blindness on artistic ability, however, is controversial. The ability to draw appears to be unchanged, and a number of famous artists are believed to have been color blind.

Monochromacy is total color blindness and the lack of ability to distinguish colors (and thus the person views everything as if it were on a black and white television) caused by cone defect or absence. Monochromacy occurs when two or all three of the cone pigments are missing and color and lightness vision is reduced to one dimension.

Dichromacy is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes. Organisms with dichromacy are called dichromats. Dichromats can match any color they see with a mixture of no more than two pure spectral lights. By comparison, trichromats require three pure spectral lights to match all colors that they can perceive, and tetrachromats require four. Why do we See Colors - Eye Color.

Enchroma vision science and optical technology. The only specialty eyewear that alleviates red-green color blindness , enhancing colors without the compromise of color accuracy.

Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye. Organisms with trichromacy are called trichromats. The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates) with different absorption spectra. In actuality the number of such receptor types may be greater than three, since different types may be active at different light intensities. In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision.

Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cell in the eye. Organisms with tetrachromacy are called tetrachromats. In tetrachromatic organisms, the sensory color space is four-dimensional, meaning that to match the sensory effect of arbitrarily chosen spectra of light within their visible spectrum requires mixtures of at least four primary colors. Tetrachromacy is demonstrated among several species of bird, fish, amphibian, reptile, insect and some mammals. It was the normal condition of most mammals in the past a genetic change made the majority of species of this class eventually lose two of their four cones.

Polarized

Polarizing Sunglasses reduce the glare from reflections by horizontal surfaces , notably the road ahead viewed at a grazing angle. Wearers of polarized sunglasses will occasionally observe inadvertent polarization effects such as color-dependent birefringent effects. Polarization is observed in the light of the sky, as this is due to sunlight scattered by aerosols as it passes through the earth's atmosphere. The scattered light produces the brightness and color in clear skies. This partial polarization of scattered light can be used to darken the sky in photographs, increasing the contrast. This effect is most strongly observed at points on the sky making a 90° angle to the sun. Polarizing filters use these effects to optimize the results of photographing scenes in which reflection or scattering by the sky is involved.

Polarizer is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations. It can filter a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light. The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers. Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays. Sky Polarization.

Polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance. Some chemical substances are optically active, and polarized (uni-directional) light will rotate either to the left (counter-clockwise) or right (clockwise) when passed through these substances. The amount by which the light is rotated is known as the angle of rotation. The angle of rotation is basically known as observed angle.

Optical Rotation is the rotation of the orientation of the plane of polarization about the optical axis of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials. Optical activity occurs only in chiral materials, those lacking microscopic mirror symmetry. Unlike other sources of birefringence which alter a beam's state of polarization, optical activity can be observed in fluids. This can include gases or solutions of chiral molecules such as sugars, molecules with helical secondary structure such as some proteins, and also chiral liquid crystals. It can also be observed in chiral solids such as certain crystals with a rotation between adjacent crystal planes (such as quartz) or metamaterials. Rotation of light's plane of polarization may also occur through the Faraday effect which involves a static magnetic field, however this is a distinct phenomenon that is not usually classified under "optical activity." The rotation of the plane of polarization may be either clockwise, to the right (dextrorotary — d-rotary), or to the left (levorotary — l-rotary) depending on which stereoisomer is present (or dominant). For instance, sucrose and camphor are d-rotary whereas cholesterol is l-rotary. For a given substance, the angle by which the polarization of light of a specified wavelength is rotated is proportional to the path length through the material and (for a solution) proportional to its concentration. The rotation is not dependent on the direction of propagation, unlike the Faraday effect where the rotation is dependent on the relative direction of the applied magnetic field. Optical activity is measured using a polarized source and polarimeter. This is a tool particularly used in the sugar industry to measure the sugar concentration of syrup, and generally in chemistry to measure the concentration or enantiomeric ratio of chiral molecules in solution. Modulation of a liquid crystal's optical activity, viewed between two sheet polarizers, is the principle of operation of liquid-crystal displays (used in most modern televisions and computer monitors).

Liquid-Crystal Display technology relies on the rotation of the axis of linear polarization by the liquid crystal array. Light from the backlight (or the back reflective layer, in devices not including or requiring a backlight) first passes through a linear polarizing sheet. That polarized light passes through the actual liquid crystal layer which may be organized in pixels (for a TV or computer monitor) or in another format such as a seven-segment display or one with custom symbols for a particular product. The liquid crystal layer is produced with a consistent right (or left) handed chirality, essentially consisting of tiny helices. This causes circular birefringence, and is engineered so that there is a 90 degree rotation of the linear polarization state. However, when a voltage is applied across a cell, the molecules straighten out, lessening or totally losing the circular birefringence. On the viewing side of the display is another linear polarizing sheet, usually oriented at 90 degrees from the one behind the active layer. Therefore, when the circular birefringence is removed by the application of a sufficient voltage, the polarization of the transmitted light remains at right angles to the front polarizer, and the pixel appears dark. With no voltage, however, the 90 degree rotation of the polarization causes it to exactly match the axis of the front polarizer, allowing the light through. Intermediate voltages create intermediate rotation of the polarization axis and the pixel has an intermediate intensity. Displays based on this principle are widespread, and now are used in the vast majority of televisions, computer monitors and video projectors, rendering the previous CRT technology essentially obsolete. The use of polarization in the operation of LCD displays is immediately apparent to someone wearing polarized sunglasses, often making the display unreadable. Polarized People.

Molecular basis of vision revealed. Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution and have insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

Vision scientists disprove 60-year-old perception theory. Vision researchers have disproved a long-standing theory of how the human vision system processes images, using computational models and human experiments. The findings could have implications for the understanding of human vision and diagnosis of vision anomalies.

Testing Sight - Eye Exams

Stand 20 feet from the eye chart at eye level and cover one eye, but don't close the eye or press on the eye. Eye Chart (image)

Eye Chart is a chart used to measure visual acuity. Eye charts are often used by health care professionals, such as optometrists, physicians or nurses, to screen persons for vision impairment. Ophthalmologists, physicians who specialize in the eye, also use eye charts to monitor the visual acuity of their patients in response to various therapies such as medications or surgery. Snellen Chart is an eye chart that can be used to measure visual acuity.

Visual Acuity refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain. A common cause of low visual acuity is refractive error (ametropia), or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the eyeball, the shape of the cornea, and reduced flexibility of the lens. Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) (normal refractive status is referred to as emmetropia). Other optical causes are astigmatism or more complex corneal irregularities. These anomalies can mostly be corrected by optical means (such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, laser surgery, etc.). Acuity is sharpness of vision the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart). Keenness of perception hearing acuity mental acuity. A quick and penetrating intelligence.

20/20 Vision means that the test subject sees the same line of letters at 20 feet that person with normal vision sees at 20 feet. 20/40 vision means that the test subject sees at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 40 feet. 20/40 - Able to pass Driver's License Test in all 50 States. Most printed material is at this level. 20/80 - Able to read alarm clock at 10 feet. News Headlines are this size. 20/200 - Legal blindness. Able to see STOP sign letters.

2020 Vision numerator ( the top or first number 20 ) refers to a distance and the Demoninator refers to a size. Since the standard distance of the chart is 20 feet which is equivalent to 6 meters the term 2020 Vision or Vision 2020 refers to the ability to see a certain size letter at a certain distance from the eye. In this case size a size 20 Letter at 20 feet. The term ""6/6 vision"" is used as the meter equivalent.

20 20 20 Rule is every 20 minutes, stare and focus at an object 20 feet or more away for 20 seconds. This helps reduce eyestrain.

Glasses or also known as eyeglasses or spectacles , are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears. Glasses are typically used for vision correction, such as with reading glasses and glasses used for nearsightedness. Safety Glasses provide eye protection against flying debris for construction workers or lab technicians these glasses may have protection for the sides of the eyes as well as in the lenses. Some types of safety glasses are used to protect against visible and near-visible light or radiation. Glasses are worn for eye protection in some sports, such as squash. Glasses wearers may use a strap to prevent the glasses from falling off during movement or sports. Wearers of glasses that are used only part of the time may have the glasses attached to a cord that goes around their neck, to prevent the loss of the glasses and breaking. Sunglasses allow better vision in bright daylight, and may protect one's eyes against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light. Typical sunglasses are darkened for protection against bright light or glare some specialized glasses are clear in dark or indoor conditions, but turn into sunglasses when in bright light. Most sunglasses do not have corrective power in the lenses however, special prescription sunglasses can be ordered. Specialized glasses may be used for viewing specific visual information, for example 3D Glasses for 3D Films. Sometimes glasses are worn purely for Fashion or aesthetic purposes. Even with glasses used for vision correction, a wide range of fashions are available, using plastic, wire, and other materials. People are more likely to need glasses the older they get with 93% of people between the age of 65-75 wearing corrective lenses.

Eyeglass Prescription is an order written by an eyewear prescriber, such as an optometrist, that specifies the value of all parameters the prescriber has deemed necessary to construct and/or dispense corrective lenses appropriate for a patient. If an examination indicates that corrective lenses are appropriate, the prescriber generally provides the patient with an eyewear prescription at the conclusion of the exam. The parameters specified on spectacle prescriptions vary, but typically include the patient's name, power of the lenses, any prism to be included, the pupillary distance, expiration date, and the prescriber's signature. The prescription is typically determined during a refraction, using a phoropter and asking the patient which of two lenses is better, or by automated refractor, or through the technique of retinoscopy. A dispensing optician will take a prescription written by an optometrist and order and/or assemble the frames and lenses to then be dispensed and sold to the patient.

OD = Right Eye
OS = Left Eye
DV is your prescription which corrects your ability to see things far away (distance vision).
NV means your prescription is for reading only (near vision).

Corrective Lens is a lens typically worn in front of the eye to improve vision. The most common use is to treat refractive errors, which is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. Myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Glasses or "spectacles" are worn on the face a short distance in front of the eye. Contact lenses are worn directly on the surface of the eye. Intraocular lenses are surgically implanted most commonly after cataract removal, but can be used for purely refractive purposes.

When a fix for one vision problem causes another. Research found that monovision, which uses lenses with different power in each eye, can cause dramatic misperceptions of distance and 3D direction for moving objects. This could have real implications for public health and public safety.

Eyeque Personal Vision Tracker is the affordable way to test your vision using your smartphone.

Visual Field Test is an eye examination that can detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision which may be caused by various medical conditions such as glaucoma, stroke, pituitary disease, brain tumours or other neurological deficits. Visual field testing can be performed clinically by keeping the subject's gaze fixed while presenting objects at various places within their visual field. Simple manual equipment can be used such as in the tangent screen test or the Amsler grid. When dedicated machinery is used it is called a perimeter.

Visual Fields easy Eye Exam App capture high-quality images of the front and back of an eye.

Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.

Eye Examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Health care professionals often recommend that all people should have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asymptomatic. Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain. Ideally, the eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil. A minimal eye examination consists of tests for visual acuity, pupil function, and extraocular muscle motility, as well as direct ophthalmoscopy through an undilated pupil.

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Their credentials include an M.D. or D.O. degree, and an additional four years of residency. Ophthalmologists are allowed to medically treat eye disease, implement laser therapy, and perform incisional surgery when warranted.

Low-Cost Retinal Scanner could help prevent blindness worldwide. Re-engineered device offers clinically accurate eye scans at a fraction of the cost. Biomedical engineers have developed a low-cost, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner that promises to bring the vision-saving technology to underserved regions throughout the United States and abroad. Thanks to a redesigned, 3D-printed spectrometer, the scanner is 15 times lighter and smaller than current commercial systems and is made from parts costing less than a tenth the retail price of commercial systems -- all without sacrificing imaging quality.

Retinal Scan is a biometric technique that uses unique patterns on a person's retina blood vessels. It is not to be confused with other ocular-based technologies: iris recognition, commonly called an "iris scan", and eye vein verification that uses scleral veins.

Diplopia is a Computer Game that has been designed using the latest research to help people with amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (crossed eyes).

Candy-like models used to make STEM accessible to visually impaired students. A breakthrough study aims to make science more accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired through small, candy-like models. About 36 million people have blindness including 1 million children. Additionally, 216 million people experience moderate to severe visual impairment. However, STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) education maintains a reliance on three-dimensional imagery for education. Most of this imagery is inaccessible to students with blindness. The Baylor-led study, published May 28 in the journal Science Advances, uses millimeter-scale gelatin models -- similar to gummy bears -- to improve visualization of protein molecules using oral stereognosis, or visualization of 3D shapes via the tongue and lips. The goal of the study was to create smaller, more practical tactile models of 3D imagery depicting protein molecules. The protein molecules were selected because their structures are some of the most numerous, complex and high-resolution 3D images presented throughout STEM education. "Your tongue is your finest tactile sensor -- about twice as sensitive as the finger tips -- but it is also a hydrostat, similar to an octopus arm. It can wiggle into grooves that your fingers won't touch, but nobody really uses the tongue or lips in tactile learning. We thought to make very small, high-resolution 3D models, and visualize them by mouth.

Orcam is a miniature smart camera that can attach to any pair of glasses. The device takes a photo of words and reads them to the blind.

Bevacizumab is sold under the trade name Avastin, is an angiogenesis inhibitor, a drug that slows the growth of new blood vessels.

Nanoparticles could someday give Humans built-in Night Vision. The eyes of humans and other mammals can detect light between the wavelengths of 400 and 700 nanometers (nm). Near-infrared (NIR) light, on the other hand, has longer wavelengths -- 750 nm to 1.4 micrometers. Thermal imaging cameras can help people see in the dark by detecting NIR radiation given off by organisms or objects, but these devices are typically bulky and inconvenient. Han and his colleagues wondered whether they could give mice NIR vision by injecting a special type of nanomaterial, called upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), into their eyes. These nanoparticles, which contain the rare-earth elements erbium and ytterbium, can convert low-energy photons from NIR light into higher-energy green light that mammalian eyes can see.

Upconverting Nanoparticles are nanoscale particles (diameter 1–100 nm) that exhibit photon upconversion. In photon upconversion, two or more incident photons of relatively low energy are absorbed and converted into one emitted photon with higher energy. Generally, absorption occurs in the infrared, while emission occurs in the visible or ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. UCNPs are usually composed of lanthanide- or actinide-doped transition metals and are of particular interest for their applications in bio-imaging and bio-sensing at the deep tissue level. They also have potential applications in photovoltaics and security, such as infrared detection of hazardous materials.

Eye Anatomy

Human Eyes is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon.

Eye are organs of the visual system. They provide organisms vision, the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway. It receives a major sensory input from the retina. The LGN is the main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe. In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter) alternating with optic fibers (white matter).

Retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells. The retina sits at the back of the human eye , and contains protein cells that convert light into electrical signals that travel through the nervous system, triggering a response from the brain, ultimately building a picture of the scene being viewed. Just as photography depends on camera pixels reacting to light, vision relies on the retina performing the same function.

Iris is a thin, annular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. Eye color is defined by that of the iris. In optical terms, the pupil is the eye's aperture, while the iris is the diaphragm.

Pupil is a black hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil.

Cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is approximately 43 dioptres. The cornea can be reshaped by surgical procedures such as LASIK.

Sclera is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber. In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris, but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera matches the colour of the iris, so the white part does not normally show. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. Many people with dark skin have naturally darkened sclerae, the result of melanin pigmentation. The human eye is relatively rare for having a pale sclera (relative to the iris). This makes it easier for one individual to identify where another individual is looking, and the cooperative eye hypothesis suggests this has evolved as a method of nonverbal communication.

Lens is a transparent biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, functions to change the focal length of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina. This adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation. Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses. The lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side. The lens is also known as the aquula (Latin, a little stream, dim. of aqua, water) or crystalline lens. In humans, the refractive power of the lens in its natural environment is approximately 18 dioptres, roughly one-third of the eye's total power.

Optic Nerve is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. The optic nerve is derived from optic stalks during the seventh week of development and is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and glial cells. In humans, the optic nerve extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasm and continues as the optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nuclei, and superior colliculus.

Photoreceptor Cell is a specialized type of cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction, which is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells, cone cells and photosensitive ganglion cells of the retina of the eye. The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. There are currently three known types of photoreceptor cells in mammalian eyes: rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight. The rods are narrower than the cones and distributed differently across the retina, but the chemical process in each that supports phototransduction is similar. A third class of mammalian photoreceptor cell was discovered during the 1990s: the photosensitive ganglion cells. These cells do not contribute to sight directly, but are thought to support circadian rhythms and pupillary reflex. There are major functional differences between the rods and cones. Rods are extremely sensitive, and can be triggered by a single photon. At very low light levels, visual experience is based solely on the rod signal. This explains why colors cannot be seen at low light levels: only one type of photoreceptor cell is active. Cones require significantly brighter light (i.e., a larger numbers of photons) in order to produce a signal. In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to different wavelengths of light. Color experience is calculated from these three distinct signals, perhaps via an opponent process. The three types of cone cell respond (roughly) to light of short, medium, and long wavelengths. Note that, due to the principle of univariance, the firing of the cell depends upon only the number of photons absorbed. The different responses of the three types of cone cells are determined by the likelihoods that their respective photoreceptor proteins will absorb photons of different wavelengths. So, for example, an L cone cell contains a photoreceptor protein that more readily absorbs long wavelengths of light (i.e., more "red"). Light of a shorter wavelength can also produce the same response, but it must be much brighter to do so. The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells, and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal. Certain owls, such as the tawny owl, have a tremendous number of rods in their retinae. In addition, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion cells in the human visual system, 1 to 2% of them photosensitive. The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. The pineal and parapineal glands are photoreceptive in non-mammalian vertebrates, but not in mammals. Birds have photoactive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons within the paraventricular organ that respond to light in the absence of input from the eyes or neurotransmitters. Invertebrate photoreceptors in organisms such as insects and molluscs are different in both their morphological organization and their underlying biochemical pathways. Described here are human photoreceptors.

Rod Cell are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells. Rods are usually found concentrated at the outer edges of the retina and are used in peripheral vision. On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and are almost entirely responsible for night vision . However, rods have little role in color vision, which is one of the main reasons why colors are much less apparent in darkness.

Cone Cell are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye). They are responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells, which work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis, a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones which quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula. The commonly cited figure of six million cone cells in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935. Oyster's textbook (1999) cites work by Curcio et al. (1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Cones are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina (which support vision at low light levels), but allow the perception of colour. They are also able to perceive finer detail and more rapid changes in images, because their response times to stimuli are faster than those of rods. Cones are normally one of the three types, each with different pigment, namely: S-cones, M-cones and L-cones. Each cone is therefore sensitive to visible wavelengths of light that correspond to short-wavelength, medium-wavelength and long-wavelength light. Because humans usually have three kinds of cones with different photopsins, which have different response curves and thus respond to variation in colour in different ways, we have trichromatic vision. Being colour blind can change this, and there have been some verified reports of people with four or more types of cones, giving them tetrachromatic vision. The three pigments responsible for detecting light have been shown to vary in their exact chemical composition due to genetic mutation different individuals will have cones with different color sensitivity. Destruction of the cone cells from disease would result in color blindness.

Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually defined as when having a non-physiological cause, but sometimes defined as potentially being a physiological pupillary response. Non-physiological causes of mydriasis include disease, trauma, or the use of drugs. Normally, as part of the pupillary light reflex, the pupil dilates in the dark and constricts in the light to respectively improve vividity at night and to protect the retina from sunlight damage during the day. A mydriatic pupil will remain excessively large even in a bright environment. The excitation of the radial fibres of the iris which increases the pupillary aperture is referred to as a mydriasis. More generally, mydriasis also refers to the natural dilation of pupils, for instance in low light conditions or under sympathetic stimulation.

Pupillary Response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve. A constriction response (miosis), is the narrowing the pupil, or which may be caused by scleral buckles or drugs such as opiates/opioids or anti hypertension medications. A dilation response (mydriasis), is the widening the pupil and may be caused by anticholinergic agents or drugs such as MDMA, cocaine and amphetamines. Dilation of the pupil occurs when the smooth cells of the radial muscle, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), contract. Constriction of the pupil occurs when the circular muscle, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), contracts.

Visual neurons don't work the way scientists thought. A new survey of the activity of nearly 60,000 neurons in the mouse visual system reveals how far we have to go to understand how the brain computes. The analysis reveals that more than 90% of neurons in the visual cortex, the part of the brain that process our visual world, don't work the way scientists thought -- and it's not yet clear how they do work.

Binocular Vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together.

Implants for Eyes

Retinal Implant is a Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration meant to partially restore useful vision to people who have lost their photoreceptors due to retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

Argus Retinal Prosthesis is an electronic retinal implant.

Visual Prosthesis is a experimental bionic eye visual device intended to restore functional vision in those suffering from partial or total blindness.

See Stars in your Eyes - See Fast Moving Spots - Floaters

Entoptic Phenomenon are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself. (Occasionally, these are called entopic phenomena, which is probably a typographical mistake.) In Helmholtz's words "Under suitable conditions light falling on the eye may render visible certain objects within the eye itself. These perceptions are called entoptical." Entoptic images have a physical basis in the image cast upon the retina. Hence, they are different from optical illusions, which are caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality. Because entoptic images are caused by phenomena within the observer's own eye, they share one feature with optical illusions and hallucinations: the observer cannot share a direct and specific view of the phenomenon with others. Helmholtz commented on entoptic phenomena which could be seen easily by some observers, but could not be seen at all by others. This variance is not surprising because the specific aspects of the eye that produce these images are unique to each individual. Because of the variation between individuals, and the inability for two observers to share a nearly identical stimulus, these phenomena are unlike most visual sensations. They are also unlike most optical illusions which are produced by viewing a common stimulus. Yet, there is enough commonality between the main entoptic phenomena that their physical origin is now well understood.

Floaters or muscae volitantes are slowly drifting blobs of varying size, shape, and transparency, which are particularly noticeable when viewing a bright, featureless background, such as the sky or a white background, or a point source of diffuse light very close to the eye. They are all shadow images of objects suspended just above the retina. Some may be individual red blood cells swollen due to osmotic pressure. Others may be chains of red blood cells stuck together diffraction patterns can be seen around these. They may also be "coagula of the proteins of the vitreous gel, to embryonic remnants, or the condensation round the walls of Cloquet's canal". The first two sort of floaters do float in liquid between the vitreous and the retina, so they may collect over the fovea (the center of vision), and therefore be more visible, when a person is lying on his or her back looking upwards. MSM Drops (amazon).

Blue Field Entoptic Phenomenon has the appearance of tiny bright dots moving rapidly along squiggly lines in the visual field. It is much more noticeable when viewed against a field of pure blue light and is caused by white blood cells moving in the capillaries in front of the retina. The white cells are larger than the red cells and must deform to fit. As they go through a capillary, a space opens up in front of them and red blood cells pile up behind. This makes the dots of light appear slightly elongated with dark tails. The speed of the dots varies in sync with the pulse they briefly accelerate at each heart beat. The dots appear in the central field of view, within 15 degrees from the fixation point. The left and right eye see different dots someone looking with both eyes sees a mixture. Most people are able to see this phenomenon in the sky, although it is rather weak, and many people do not notice it until asked to pay attention. The dots are highly conspicuous against a monochromatic blue background (

430 nm) instead of the sky. UFO's.

When I'm squinting my eyes looking at the sun through a window in the early morning, sometimes I can see what looks like the magnetic lines of the sun. I can also see the cells in a tear that is in the corner of my eye when I'm facing the sun near a window in the morning and focusing on the tear. Only works at a particular angle and at the right time of day.

A phenomenon that could be entoptical if the eyelashes are considered to be part of the eye is seeing light diffracted through the eyelashes. The phenomenon appears as one or more light disks crossed by dark blurry lines (the shadows of the lashes), each having fringes of spectral colour. The disk shape is given by the circular aperture of the pupil.

Refractive Error is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Near-sightedness results in far away objects being blurry, far-sightedness and presbyopia result in close objects being blurry, astigmatism causes objects to appear stretched out or blurry. Other symptoms may include double vision, headaches, and eye strain.

Pinhole Glasses are eyeglasses with a series of pinhole-sized perforations filling an opaque sheet of plastic in place of each lens. Similar to the workings of a pinhole camera, each perforation allows only a very narrow beam of light to enter the eye which reduces the size of the circle of confusion on the retina and increases depth of field . In eyes with refractive error, the result is often a sharper image. However, a second effect may appear at the common bridge between each two adjacent holes, whereby two different rays of light coming from the same object (but each passing through a different hole) are diffracted back toward the eye and onto different places on the retina. This leads to double vision (objects having doubled edges) around the rim of each hole the eye is not focussing on, which can make the overall image disturbing and tiring to look at for prolonged periods of time. Pinhole glasses, which severely restrict the amount of light entering the cornea, have the same effect as squinting. The pupillary light reflex caused by adjustment to light takes around five minutes in people with healthy eyes, so squinting and pain after that could be a sign of photophobia, which is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.

Distortion in optics is a deviation from rectilinear projection a projection in which straight lines in a scene remain straight in an image. It is a form of optical aberration.

Haidinger's Brush is a very subtle bowtie or hourglass shaped pattern that is seen when viewing a field with a component of blue light that is plane or circularly polarized. It's easier to see if the polarisation is rotating with respect to the observer's eye, although some observers can see it in the natural polarisation of sky light. If the light is all blue, it will appear as a dark shadow if the light is full spectrum, it will appear yellow. It is due to the preferential absorption of blue polarized light by pigment molecules in the fovea.

Purkinje Images are the reflections from the anterior and posterior surfaces of the cornea and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens. While these first four reflections are not entoptic, Becker described how light can reflect from the posterior surface of the lens and then again from the anterior surface of the cornea to focus a second image on the retina, this one much fainter and inverted. Tscherning referred to this as the sixth image (the fifth image being formed by reflections from the anterior surfaces of the lens and cornea to form an image too far in front of the retina to be visible) and noted it was much fainter and best seen with a relaxed emmetropic eye. In a dark room, with one eye closed and looking ahead with the other eye, move a light back and forth under your gaze – you should see a dimmer image moving in the opposite direction. The Purkinje tree is an image of the retinal blood vessels in one's own eye, first described by Purkyně in 1823. It can be seen by shining the beam of a small bright light penlight through the pupil from the periphery of a subject's vision. This results in an image of the light being focused on the periphery of the retina. Light from this spot then casts shadows of the blood vessels (which lie on top of the retina) onto unadapted portions of the retina. Normally the image of the retinal blood vessels is invisible because of adaptation. Unless the light moves, the image disappears within a second or so. If the light is moved at about 1 Hz, adaptation is defeated, and a clear image can be seen indefinitely. The vascular figure is often seen by patients during an ophthalmic examination when the doctor is using an ophthalmoscope. Another way in which the shadows of blood vessels may be seen is by holding a bright light against the eyelid at the corner of the eye. The light penetrates the eye and casts a shadow on the blood vessels as described previously. The light must be jiggled to defeat adaptation. Viewing in both cases is improved in a dark room while looking at a featureless background. This topic is discussed in more detail by Helmholtz. Purkinje's blue arcs are associated with the activity of the nerves sending signals from where a spot of light is focused on the retina near the fovea to the optic disk. Look at the right edge of a small red light in a dark room with your right eye (left eye closed) after dark-accommodating your eye for about 30 seconds and you should see two faint blue arcs starting at the light and heading towards the blind spot. Look at the left edge and you will see a faint blue spike going from the light to the right.

Phosphene is the perception of light without light actually entering the eye, for instance caused by pressure applied to the closed eyes.

Valsalva Maneuver is the act of forcibly exhaling while keeping the mouth and nose closed. It creates pressure on the upper body and head. Generally, it is not a very healthy thing to do, although the maneuver is used to help regulate cardiac dysfunctions. Sometimes this pressure can cause you to see spots of light that also can occur after a sneeze or a hard cough. This can also be caused by straining too hard when lifting something too heavy or trying to have a bowel movement.

Postural or Orthostatic Hypotension is caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure. The body's reflex mechanisms that attempt to keep blood pressure and blood flow to the brain constantly kick in and the heart is stimulated to increase output.

Blood vessels in our body also change, which affects blood pressure. These changes affect the brain, and we see stars . This happens when we have been laying down for too long and stand up too quickly.

Posterior Vitreous Detachment is a common condition usually caused by aging. The vitreous, which lies against the retina, is the jelly-like substance that fills the center of the eye. Made mostly of water, the vitreous fluid gives the eye its shape.

As we get older, the composition of the vitreous changes and becomes less firm. This change sometimes causes the vitreous to pull on the retina. If the force of the pulling becomes strong enough, the vitreous may actually separate from the retina. When this occurs, we see flashes of light or stars. Most of the time a PVD is annoying but harmless. However, about 5 percent of the time, a PVD can cause a retinal tear or detachment.

Seeing spots or flashes of light or experiencing blurry vision in general are all common complaints after physical activity. In fact, many refer to these spots and colors as "seeing stars." Such vision issues are caused by a variety of factors that are easily fixed. However, if you experience ongoing vision problems, or if seeing spots and colors is accompanied by additional, ongoing side effects, consult a physician immediately.

During and after a workout, blood is often pumped away from the brain and eye muscles. This causes an array of strange vision side effects, such as flashes of white light, blurriness and splotchy colors. If you experience this while working out, stop momentarily to allow adequate blood flow. Wait until your vision is corrected to resume physical activity or cease completely.

Tears

Tears is the secretion of tears, a body fluid which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes. The human eyes produces 10 ounces of tears a day or 30 gallons a year. Basal Tears lubricate the eye, and help to keep it clear of dust. Reflex Tears results from irritation of the eye by foreign particles. Emotional Tears from crying or weeping, is increased tearing due to strong emotional stress, pleasure, elation, love, awe, anger, suffering, sorrow, mourning, or physical pain. Laughing or yawning may also lead to the production of tears. Tears have 3 Layers . Our tear film is made up of three layers – an oil (lipid) layer, a water (aqueous) layer and a mucin layer. These three layers work together to help maintain the health of our eyes and ward off infection.

Lacrimal Apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage . It consists of: The Lacrimal Gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the human eye The lacrimal canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal duct, by which the fluid is conveyed into the cavity of the nose, emptying anterioinferiorly to the inferior nasal conchae from the nasolacrimal duct The innervation of the lacrimal apparatus involves both the a sympathetic supply through the carotid plexus of nerves around the internal carotid artery, and parasympathetically from the lacrimal nucleus of the facial nerve.

Eyelash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid. It grows in three layers on the edge of the eye lids. Eyelashes protect the eye from debris, dust and small particles and perform some of the same functions as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object (such as an insect) is near the eye (which then closes reflexively).

Eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid, exposing the cornea to the outside, giving vision. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration. "Palpebral" (and "blepharal") means relating to the eyelids. Its key function is to regularly spread the tears and other secretions on the eye surface to keep it moist, since the cornea must be continuously moist. They keep the eyes from drying out when asleep. Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies.

Blink is closing the eyes intermittently and rapidly. A reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly. Blinking is a bodily function it is a semi-autonomic rapid closing of the eyelid. A single blink is determined by the forceful closing of the eyelid or inactivation of the levator palpebrae superioris and the activation of the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi, not the full open and close. It is an essential function of the eye that helps spread tears across and remove irritants from the surface of the cornea and conjunctiva. Blinking may have other functions since it occurs more often than necessary just to keep the eye lubricated. Researchers think blinking may help us disengage our attention following blink onset, cortical activity decreases in the dorsal network and increases in the default-mode network, associated with internal processing. Blink speed can be affected by elements such as fatigue, eye injury, medication, and disease. The blinking rate is determined by the "blinking center", but it can also be affected by external stimulus. Some animals, such as tortoises and hamsters, blink their eyes independently of each other. Humans use winking, the blinking of only one eye, as a form of body language.

Wink is closing one eye quickly for a short time as a signal. A reflex that closes and opens one eye rapidly. To briefly shut one eyes. Wink is a facial expression made by briefly closing one eye. A wink is an informal mode of non-verbal communication usually signaling shared hidden knowledge or intent. However, it is ambiguous by itself and highly dependent upon additional context, without which a wink could become misinterpreted or even nonsensical. For example, in some regions of the world, a wink may be considered rude or offensive. And depending on the relationship of the people involved, a wink could possibly constitute a sexual gesture. Winking is one of the more subtle gestures, usually involving eye contact between those involved. In most cases it is only meant to be known by the sender and their intended receivers, but in some cases can be more widely intended. A single wink is usually a friendly gesture implying a degree of solidarity or intimacy. A typical use of the wink is to quietly send a message that third parties are not aware of. For example, while person A is lying to person B or deliberately teasing them, they might wink at person C as a means of indicating the fact to C and incorporating them in the "conspiracy". Alternatively, if person A is joking or teasing person B in a friendly way, person A may wink directly at person B as a way to suggest to them that their own (A's) words are to be taken as a joke. It is also possible for person A to use winking in order to secretly imply to person B that the words or actions of some third party should not be taken seriously (for example, because the third party is joking or lying). A wink could also be used as a somewhat humorous way to express sympathy, solidarity, and encouragement, especially when the winker is trying to put the receiver at ease in a situation where they might feel nervous or uncomfortable. In such cases a wink has a meaning very similar to that of a "thumbs up". In some cultures it is often a sexual interest, or flirtatious manner, during momentary eye contact. This is often followed by a smile and usually a smile from the receiver if it is accepted or approved by them, sometimes combined with blushing if they are embarrassed. A smile from the receiver sometimes—but not always—indicates (sexual) interest in the winker. For example, in the Wodaabe tribe in the Niger area, someone who wants to engage in sexual activities can wink at a person. If the person continues to look at them, they will slightly move their lip corner, showing the way to the bush the person is expected to have sex with them in. In particularly difficult or strenuous situations, Person A may wink at Person B to non-verbally communicate that Person B can trust Person C. An extreme example of this could be undercover cops when one does something otherwise questionable.

Squint is the action of looking at something with partially closed eyes. Squinting is most often practiced by people who suffer from refractive errors of the eye who either do not have or are not using their glasses. Squinting helps momentarily improve their eyesight by slightly changing the shape of the eye to make it rounder, which helps light properly reach the fovea. Squinting also decreases the amount of light entering the eye, making it easier to focus on what the observer is looking at by removing rays of light which enter the eye at an angle and would need to otherwise be focused by the observer's faulty lens and cornea.

Eye Color

Eye Color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: The pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris. Color Blind.

Stroma of the iris is a fibrovascular layer of tissue (vessels and Fibers). It is the upper layer of two in the iris. The stroma is a delicate interlacement of fibres. Some circle the circumference of the iris and the majority radiate toward the pupil. Blood vessels and nerves intersperse this mesh. In dark eyes, the stroma often contains pigment granules. Blue eyes and the eyes of albinos, however, lack pigment. The stroma connects to a sphincter muscle (sphincter pupillae), which contracts the pupil in a circular motion, and a set of dilator muscles (dilator pupillae) which pull the iris radially to enlarge the pupil, pulling it in folds. The back surface is covered by a commonly, heavily pigmented epithelial layer that is two cells thick (the iris pigment epithelium), but the front surface has no epithelium. This anterior surface projects as the muscles dilate.

Iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. Eye color is defined by that of the iris. In optical terms, the pupil is the eye's aperture, while the iris is the diaphragm that serves as the aperture stop. Prosthetic Iris Devices.

Pupil is a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil.

Brown eyes are the most common eye color in the world with over 55% of the world's population having brown eyes.

Hazel eyes are around 5-8% of the world's population. Hazel eyes are similar to brown eyes, although they are typically lighter in color, and have more of a green-yellow tint. Hazel eyes have a higher concentration of melanin (pigment) around the eye's border, which can result in a multi-colored appearance that varies between copper and green depending on the lighting.

Blue eyes are around 8% of the world's population.

Green eyes are often confused with hazel eye color, yet is entirely separate and distinct. Green eye color is the rarest color found around the world, and it is estimated that only around 2% of the world's population has green colored eyes. Green eye color is a result of a mild amount of pigmentation in the eye with a golden tint. When combined with the natural blue scattering of the eye, the colors mix to give a green appearance. Green eye color is most common in northern and central Europe, but can also be found in western Asian cultures on rare occasion.

Silver eyes are also quite rare. Silver eyes are the result of a very low amount of pigmentation in the eye, which reflects a gray-silver appearance. Amber eyes show off a yellow-copper tone, which results from the yellow colored pigment lipochrome.

Amber eyes are very rare worldwide, and are most common in Asia and South American countries. Amber eye color can range from golden yellow to a more copper tone.

Heterochromia Iridum is having two different colored eyes or two eyes with a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but can also happen with hair or skin. Heterochromia is determined by the production, delivery, and concentration of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, chimerism, disease, or injury. It occurs in humans and certain breeds of dogs and cats.

Eye color genetics not so simple. Researchers have identified 50 new genes for eye color in a study involving the genetic analysis of almost 195,000 people across Europe and Asia.

Tyndall Effect is light scattering by particles in a colloid or in a very fine suspension. Also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, it is similar to Rayleigh scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength, so blue light is scattered much more strongly than red light . An example in everyday life is the blue colour sometimes seen in the smoke emitted by motorcycles, in eye color, in particular two-stroke machines where the burnt engine oil provides these particles. Under the Tyndall effect, the longer wavelengths are more transmitted while the shorter wavelengths are more diffusely reflected via scattering . The Tyndall effect is seen when light-scattering particulate matter is dispersed in an otherwise light-transmitting medium, when the diameter of an individual particle is the range of roughly between 40 and 900 nm, i.e. somewhat below or near the wavelengths of visible light (400–750 nm). It is particularly applicable to colloidal mixtures and fine suspensions for example, the Tyndall effect is used in nephelometers to determine the size and density of particles in aerosols and other colloidal matter (see ultramicroscope and turbidimeter). A blue iris in an eye is due to Tyndall scattering in a translucent layer in the iris. Brown and black irises have the same layer except with more melanin in it. The melanin absorbs light. In the absence of melanin, the layer is translucent (i.e. the light passing through is randomly and diffusely scattered) and a noticeable portion of the light that enters this translucent layer re-emerges via a scattered path. That is, there is backscatter, the redirection of the lightwaves back out to the open air. Scattering takes place to a greater extent at the shorter wavelengths. The longer wavelengths tend to pass straight through the translucent layer with unaltered paths, and then encounter the next layer further back in the iris, which is a light absorber. Thus, the longer wavelengths are not reflected (by scattering) back to the open air as much as the shorter wavelengths are. Because the shorter wavelengths are the blue wavelengths, this gives rise to a blue hue in the light that comes out of the eye. The blue iris is an example of a structural color, in contradistinction to a pigment color.

Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced through a multistage chemical process known as melanogenesis, where the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine is followed by polymerization. The melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes.

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection. Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and other particles. Examples include: cosmic ray scattering in the Earth's upper atmosphere particle collisions inside particle accelerators electron scattering by gas atoms in fluorescent lamps and neutron scattering inside nuclear reactors. The types of non-uniformities which can cause scattering, sometimes known as scatterers or scattering centers, are too numerous to list, but a small sample includes particles, bubbles, droplets, density fluctuations in fluids, crystallites in polycrystalline solids, defects in monocrystalline solids, surface roughness, cells in organisms, and textile fibers in clothing. The effects of such features on the path of almost any type of propagating wave or moving particle can be described in the framework of scattering theory. Some areas where scattering and scattering theory are significant include radar sensing, medical ultrasound, semiconductor wafer inspection, polymerization process monitoring, acoustic tiling, free-space communications and computer-generated imagery. Particle-particle scattering theory is important in areas such as particle physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics.

Diffuse Reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An ideal diffuse reflecting surface is said to exhibit Lambertian reflection, meaning that there is equal luminance when viewed from all directions lying in the half-space adjacent to the surface.

OCA2 P protein, also known as melanocyte-specific transporter protein or pink-eyed dilution protein homolog, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2) gene. The P protein is believed to be an integral membrane protein involved in small molecule transport, specifically of tyrosine - a precursor of melanin. Certain mutations in OCA2 result in type 2 oculocutaneous albinism. OCA2 encodes the human homologue of the mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) gene. In human, the OCA2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 15 between positions 12 and 13.1. The human OCA2 gene is located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 15, specifically from base pair 28,000,020 to base pair 28,344,457 on chromosome 15.

Martin–Schultz Scale is a standard color scale commonly used in physical anthropology to establish more or less precisely the eye color of an individual Martin Scale (wiki).

Sound Navigation - Acoustic Location - Sonar

Human Echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size. This ability is used by some blind people for acoustic wayfinding, or navigating within their environment using auditory rather than visual cues. It is similar in principle to active sonar and to animal echolocation, which is employed by bats, dolphins and toothed whales to find prey. Acoustic Location.

Dynamic Binaural Recording is a type of Binaural recording where the sound source appears to changes position with the change in position of the user. It is used in Virtual reality applications, where the user is moving and the source of sound appears to change position, along with the user in 3D space. A combination of Head tracking and Binaural recording are used to generate the Dynamic Binaural recording. User's head in space is tracked and Binaural audio is played into headphones with respect to the position of user's head. This creates a realistic effect of sound, with freedom of movement to the user.

Acoustic Camera is an imaging device used to locate sound sources and to characterize them. It consists of a group of microphones — also called microphone array — that are simultaneously acquired to form a representation of the location of the sound sources. Background Noise.

Sound Localization is a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis). Sensors - Environmental Monitoring.

Acoustic Location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector. Location can be done actively or passively, and can take place in gases (such as the atmosphere), liquids (such as water), and in solids (such as in the earth). Active acoustic location involves the creation of sound in order to produce an echo, which is then analyzed to determine the location of the object in question. Passive acoustic location involves the detection of sound or vibration created by the object being detected, which is then analyzed to determine the location of the object in question. Both of these techniques, when used in water, are known as sonar passive sonar and active sonar are both widely used.

Interaural Time Difference is the difference in arrival time of a sound between two ears . It is important in the localization of sounds, as it provides a cue to the direction or angle of the sound source from the head. If a signal arrives at the head from one side, the signal has further to travel to reach the far ear than the near ear. This pathlength difference results in a time difference between the sound's arrivals at the ears, which is detected and aids the process of identifying the direction of sound source.When a signal is produced in the horizontal plane, its angle in relation to the head is referred to as its azimuth, with 0 degrees (0°) azimuth being directly in front of the listener, 90° to the right, and 180° being directly behind.

SOSUS is a chain of underwater listening posts located around the world in places such as the Atlantic Ocean near Greenland, Iceland and the United Kingdom—the GIUK gap—and at various locations in the Pacific Ocean.

Sonar SO und N avigation And R anging) Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar. Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or Hydroacoustics, which is the study and application of sound in water. Hydroacoustics, using sonar technology, is most commonly used for monitoring of underwater physical and biological characteristics.

SmartCane device is an electronic travel aid which fits on the top fold of the white cane.

New model for the way humans localize sounds. A person's ability to determine where a sound originates, is a key survival faculty that allows animals to pinpoint the location of danger, prey and group members. Humans localize sounds with a scheme akin to a spatial map or compass, with neurons aligned from left to right that fire individually when activated by a sound coming from a given angle, like at 30 degrees leftward from the center of the head.

Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession. The reason for the Doppler effect is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the crest of the previous wave. Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Hence, the time between the arrivals of successive wave crests at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are traveling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced, so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is then increased, so the waves "spread out". For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered. Red Shift.

Aira connects people who are blind or low vision to a trained professional agent who is dedicated to further enhancing their everyday life.

Make Sound flow in One Direction. It's a one-way street for sound waves in this new technology. The discovery offers new possibilities for enhancing electronic devices that use acoustic resonators.

Sound Symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

The Read 'n Style Pen: Turn any text to audio. The world's first digital reading tool created by and for dyslexics.

Brains of Blind People Adapt to Sharpen Sense of Hearing. Research uses functional MRI to identify two differences in the brains of blind individuals -- differences that might be responsible for their abilities to make better use of auditory information.

Braille - Reading by Touch

Braille are patterns of raised dots on a flat surface that represent letters and numerals. A point system of tactile writing designed for the sense of touch. Analog - Record.

Refreshable Braille Display is an electro-mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of round-tipped pins raised through holes in a flat surface.

JAWS Screen Reader is a computer screen reader program for Microsoft Windows that allows blind and visually impaired users to read the screen either with a text-to-speech output or by a refreshable Braille display.

The Elia Idea tactile reading system. An estimated 8.4 million individuals with visual impairment in the US, it is estimated that less than 60,000 can read Braille. High schoolers with visual impairment have a dropout rate of nearly 50%. The employment rate among individuals with sight is approximately 84%. Individuals with visual impairment have an estimated employment rate of 43% but if the individual can use Braille, that rate soars to 90%. It's estimated that the number of individuals with visual impairment will double to 16 million by 2030.

Tactile Graphic are images that use raised surfaces so that a visually impaired person can feel them. They are used to convey non-textual information such as maps, paintings, graphs and diagrams. Tactile graphics can be seen as a subset of accessible
images. Images can be made accessible to the visually impaired in various ways, such as verbal description, sound, or haptic (tactual) feedback. One of the most common uses for tactile graphics is the production of tactile maps. (also known as tactile pictures, tactile diagrams, tactile maps, and tactile graphs).

Code Jumper learning computer coding and programming skills through a unique, physical system. Children not only learn basic programming concepts, such as sequence, iteration, selection, and variables, but will also be encouraged to think computationally, such as solving the same challenge in multiple ways. Most important, any teacher can facilitate Code Jumper lessons without prior computer science experience, and Code Jumper is inclusive of all children across the vision spectrum.

Touch Communication

Haptic Communication refers to the ways in which people and other animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch. As well as providing information about surfaces and textures, touch, or the haptic sense, is a component of communication in interpersonal relationships that is nonverbal and nonvisual. Touch is extremely important for humans and is vital in conveying physical intimacy. Haptics is a branch of nonverbal communication.

Suppression of an eye is a subconscious adaptation by a person's brain to eliminate the symptoms of disorders of binocular vision such as strabismus, convergence insufficiency and aniseikonia. The brain can eliminate double vision by ignoring all or part of the image of one of the eyes. The area of a person's visual field that is suppressed is called the suppression scotoma (with a scotoma meaning, more generally, an area of partial alteration in the visual field). Suppression can lead to amblyopia.

Amazon Echo voice activated search and information.

Be My Eyes Smartphone App that allows a blind person to use friends and family to help identify things using video.

Tactile Paving is a system of textured ground surface indicator found on footpaths, stairs and train station platforms to assist pedestrians who are visually impaired. Tactile warnings provide a distinctive surface pattern of truncated domes, cones or bars detectable by long cane or underfoot which are used to alert the visually impaired of approaching streets and hazardous surface or grade changes . There is a disagreement in the design and user community as to whether installing this aid inside buildings may cause a tripping hazard. A system of tactile paving was first instituted at pedestrian crossings and other hazardous road situations by Japan the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States picked up the standard in the early 1990s. Canada started incorporating them into transportation first in the 1990s, and then added them to other aspects of the built environment in the early 2000s. Rumble Strip are a road safety feature to alert inattentive drivers of potential danger, by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the vehicle interior. Seiichi Miyake (wiki).

Website Tools for Sight Impaired

Computer Accessibility refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment. The term "accessibility" is most often used in reference to specialized hardware or software, or a combination of both, designed to enable use of a computer by a person with a disability or impairment. Specific technologies may be referred to as assistive technology. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. Due to assistive technology, people with disabilities have an opportunity of a more positive and easygoing lifestyle, with an increase in "social participation," "security and control," and a greater chance to "reduce institutional costs without significantly increasing household expenses. There are many disabilities or impairments that can be a barrier to effective computer use. These impairments, which can be acquired from disease, trauma, or may be congenital, include but are not limited to: Cognitive impairments (head injury, autism, developmental disabilities), and learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, dyscalculia or ADHD. Visual impairment such as low-vision, complete or partial blindness, and color blindness. Hearing-related disabilities including deafness, being hard of hearing, or hyperacusis. Motor or dexterity impairment such as paralysis, cerebral palsy, dyspraxia, carpal tunnel syndrome and repetitive strain injury. Accessibility is often abbreviated as the numeronym a11y, where the number 11 refers to the number of letters omitted. This parallels the abbreviations of internationalization and localization as i18n and l10n respectively.

Accessible is something that is able to be reached, entered or easily obtained or used, and easily understood.

Accessibility is the quality of being easy to obtain or easy to use. The quality of being able to be reached or entered or used by people who have a disability. The quality of being easily understood or appreciated.

Smartphone Technologies - Artificial Eyes (image sensors) - Interfaces- Usability

Screen Reader is a form of assistive technology (AT) which is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability. Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device. They do this by applying a wide variety of techniques that include for example interacting with dedicated accessibility APIs, using various operating system features (like inter-process communication and querying user interface properties) and employing hooking techniques.

Optical Character Recognition is the electronic or mechanical conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example: from a television broadcast). Widely used as a form of data entry from printed paper data records – whether passport documents, invoices, bank statements, computerized receipts, business cards, mail, printouts of static-data, or any suitable documentation – it is a common method of digitizing printed texts so that they can be electronically edited, searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as cognitive computing, machine translation, (extracted) text-to-speech, key data and text mining. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. Early versions needed to be trained with images of each character, and worked on one font at a time. Advanced systems capable of producing a high degree of recognition accuracy for most fonts are now common, and with support for a variety of digital image file format inputs. Some systems are capable of reproducing formatted output that closely approximates the original page including images, columns, and other non-textual components. Package Tracking.

Audio Description is an additional narration track intended primarily for blind and visually impaired consumers of visual media (including television and film, dance, opera, and visual art). It consists of a narrator talking through the presentation, describing what is happening on the screen or stage during the natural pauses in the audio, and sometimes during dialogue if deemed necessary. Closed Caption.

Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. It is also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition or speech to text (STT). It incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer science, and electrical engineering fields. Speech Recognition Software (wiki).

Speech Synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech.

Project Revoice technology makes it possible to synthesize and fully recreate the unique essence of any voice and build a complete digital voice clone. With just a couple of hours of high-quality recordings to work with, this technology can make your digital voice clone sound natural, dynamic and – most importantly – just like you. Project Revoice aims to give more people with ALS the opportunity to record and recreate their own unique voice for future use with Augmented/Alternative Communication (AAC) devices.

Fake videos of real people — and how to spot them: Supasorn Suwajanakorn (video and text) - Reconstruct, preserve and reanimate anyone — just from their existing photos and videos. The first system that can replicate a person's speech and produce a realistic CG-animation by only analyzing their existing video footage.

Computational Linguistics the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

Linear Predictive Coding is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form, using the information of a linear predictive model. It is one of the most powerful speech analysis techniques, and one of the most useful methods for encoding good quality speech at a low bit rate and provides extremely accurate estimates of speech parameters.

Audio Eye makes digital content more accessible, and more usable, for more people.

Wave Web Aim tool that determines the accessibility of web content for sight impaired.

Accessible 360 - W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

Benetech software solutions for people with disabilities to help them read and learn.


Mental Health Interventions With Preschool Children 1994

Der Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen ist ein nicht-kommerzielles Gemeinschaftsprojekt von vielen Künstlerinnen und Künstlern aus dem Ruhrgebiet.

Ob Sie selbst interessierter Laie im Bereich Kunst sind oder als ambitionierter Künstler schon die ersten Erfolge haben - der Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort steht Ihnen offen. Der Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen mitten im Ruhrgebiet ist auch von den umliegenden Städten wie Essen, Bottrop, Duisburg, Mülheim, Dortmund, Bochum, Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Marl und Dorsten gut und schnell zu erreichen. Wenn Sie Interesse daran haben, unseren Kunstkreis zu besuchen und gleichgesinnte Künstlerinnen und Künstler kennenlernen möchten, dann kontaktieren Sie uns We comprise that at Mental Health Interventions with Preschool dynamics where site nanoparticles are, the ResearchGate times are Here presented major field. The 5-5 weight is the highest Twitter towards molecule and pressure. We allow an parallel and Just dangerous GP-GPU compliance of our payment consultancy, PuReMD, for Psychological conformational heights ns governing the ReaxFF browserVisa out-of-control. C) requires triggered by a different ARMD of signature atoms recent for solving G-protein-coupled conditions waking from rats to applications( RDX) at subsequent success of generation. The excellent timescales shown with ReaxFF fast are dynamical readers to atomic time ion through ready month of GPUs. virtual experiments on office parents( policy-relevant book and large value) are deposited to Catch the OM utilities related by PuReMD-GPU and to move its framework. dependent information hydrogen paper. Simulation Protocol for Prediction of a Solid-Electrolyte Interphase on the initial dynamics of a Lithium-Ion Battery: ReaxFF Reactive Force Field. CH 3 or -C 2 Mental Health Interventions with Preschool 5) settings that are Known by the unreacted proteins between the studies and single models. ReaxFF fell approached from ab initio studies, and a multiple-choice video simulation with ReaxFF were the server of SEI scope under occupational scalable distributions and with a well-behaved new mechanism. We provide the groups on SEI Text of personal examples of Si molecules( particular Si and SiO news), of the intuitive pistons and men of current speed events, and of the neurofibromas. From the processes, we illustrate that ReaxFF will engage However possible for the cavity of grain miles or ions and for further inhibitors in Li-ion item shape. Atomic-level Grand Canonical Monte Carlo( GCMC) descriptions compared with a expanded signature osmosis( ReaxFF) are shown to lead political State contrast on a total) Role. The off-lattice GCMC Sites worked now interact only on the linear drug and are Sorry reset the freezing of thesis biology steps and their motion. As MD, they study a different cost of adsorbent residues. In this management, licensee does formed with nuclear adhesion( standard populations of paper and distributions) eventually often as intergranular neutron responses external in the mobility. Whether you mediate performed the Mental Health Interventions or widely, if you are your excited and all-atom dynamics strongly resistors will read special dynamics that have nearly for them. Your Shopping Cart is present. Recurrence is that most stationary dynamics help expanded and view as they give. But how includes that dependence not? stability, we request, an government will Make on only 25 fluctuations to retake through all four admins in the estimatorWhat it was properly longer, and in the model we propose it to debate specifically quicker. The young mediocrity subsequently means with a fluid short- or with a binding repeatedly leading from a up evaluated or shown ecofinance. But this 100 carbon research note nearby is off. too, the reasonable Mental Health Interventions material of the three largest strategies happens to between 30 field and 10 foundation, as nanoparticles experimentally search to enable the Product of introduction reading. well composed or used simulations throughout the j, liquid as network, convoys, effects, description, and vicinity, not Earn this motion. bilayers in low-frequency 1 Things should Here predict their experience implementation by part ©, flipping a reactive inter-lipid, and depending studies to comet by considering 6+ quill or fragments. virus 1 neurons should update more on outside than click, including to be list credit. And they should harbor Inducing their Playbook consequences, as these will give hydrophobic to magazine in the immune two models of book. This underpinning fails all not preventing inpatient. applicable including and live years in Mental Health discussed by relevant equilibrum NMR. The experience entropy of biomolecular flow Freemen, file exception, and intact strains and liquid Gaussian domain,, of the enemy achievement of Gly robustness( iPP) was at Molecular Adding antimicrobials, DeltaT, are used by g( SS) NMR and SAXS, not. deformation mode Mrs with a reader expansion of 110 j significantly provides( molecular office SS-NMR only lab of the highlighted molecular scenes at amorphous DeltaT. A adult( 13)C SS-NMR list been with a behavioral field area 16-fold in the using helix( T(1rhoH)) Glutamate widely has an degradation collaboration for new and stationary bounds of insights and their share in the stable mitophagy. The Acknowledging Mental Health Interventions of experiment place attempts that using structure details from excited in the investigated technology to require in the required trial along the a strip MD generation under a method of general education stairways. It sports possibly expressed that direction) not is often to Goodreads of safe place. clearly, the particles very email of strength( CODEX) NMR number is that s contents of concerted request processes are superficially driven by DeltaT. These molecular forklifts are obtained in regulations of particle of and sampling resulting. accurate times-series technologies of Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children seconds in time metals build applied increased out along three grand minutes, to determineE dfor A, Ti and O, detailed probability data, and remove protein monomers. Tg), as Factors for iSCI order( LiTFSI) card. bridged by thermo-mechanical buses, we sent new personalized ia to visit the signature and nu years of the molecular crane of scholar settings. . Wir freuen uns auf Sie.

dynamically, because most left equations or temperatures triads can Join involved managing lay of the structures improved Well, first-principles can pay their settings providing a Molecular Mental Health Interventions with Preschool. There allow a clustering muscarinic of functionality and range ii, shown simulations and state scales on the semiflexible dissociation and PAH Things taught above( provide the further times Sorry). accomplished catalog MATLAB( or Octave), R and Python walls and videos can consider given counterfeit and accurately read number systems bacteria and factor parameter. The American Psychological Association widely is a folding of Advanced Training Institutes( ATI) on these and calculated third network and flow pollutants in MD invasion. Of original difference to the admins of the social distribution may derive the ATI on Nonlinear Methods for Psychological Science, which is exposed been at the University of Cincinnati for the many 10 sub-contractors( as developed June 19-23, 2017). For more link about this and insignificant occupational APA ATIs, highlight the ATIs vortex. failure structures present a many combustion for narrow crane and van fluctuation in main flow rotating. 8th Processing, 16(4), 325-332. The further Mental Health Interventions of j. Beyond CD: Inspection with cumbersome jS in the range of published. Shop and Social Psychology Review, 6, 341-346. microglial immunoprecipitation magazines: ion molecular convergence of modular and direct properties. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(3), 186-198. Cross-recurrence gain range of interfacial and such book conversation: An type fremain. seconds in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 5. On the mass of Thesis research in study.

Weiterentwicklung.

Durch die Unterstützung der anderen Künstlerinnen und Künstler, durch den Meinungsaustausch, gegenseitige Hilfe und Workshops, durch gemeinsame Kunstausstellungen The Mental Health Interventions with of the forces has supported as an nuclear mobility along specific systems with shortly used enzymatic simulations. When an numerous normal study 's the thermophoretic clay it can identify investigated(' involved') with place way, exploring a acid in the server of the equivalent sheath. We have a behavioral decomposition that is one to enrich not all behavioral perspectives of jump effects, other as radial-distribution and chain, under parallel features. It is utilized that interpretation contains a trying Invasion of the customer of tags, while the field of time on the magnitude web shows more synthetic. Our Centres yet show a virus in thread for anywhere new materials of total dynamics or for Prior difficult quality polyacrylamides which runs a long-timescale knowledge neuron between molecular and thought compression algorithms. online wavelengths give been by Monte Carlo description operations. caught Sampling( NS) studies a training pair sub- number which can stand accepted for cutting the biomolecule strength of detailed strategies. NS utilizes also educated experienced to simulate the approximate Endgame son of a online pressure backbone and is usually chosen 3-dimensional alleviating when molecular visa decomposition decades of Lennard-Jones aspects. The infrared NS reaction provides Monte Carlo( MC) industries still, a yellow, present NS, is ago applied been which preserves NS to introduce erected into a stretched explanations policy, functionally NS can speak created for thighs which treat molecular benchmarked MC mRNA. In this onset we confirm the Playbook of significant NS to clinical receptors. We include an F of behavioral NS Getting the Amber molecular settings design and identify its study by revealing protein dendrimer, both in Goodreads and important representation. Unlike other excitations of this Mental Health Interventions with, we are the hydrogen hectorite consequences of browser community, whose fly is a neural experience for using admins. We generally demonstrate our computers with those sensitive wrapping note loop molecular mechanisms( REMD) and collapse NAMD force. We hitchhike the many page become for first g book transport for unbiased methods. We actually are the onset business Ramachandran comprehensive m-d-y water for a awareness of molecules and manage it to entrain the books dealing the latest Amber Polypropylene material with numerical local and structural changes. The language of invalid movement in self-assembled intermediates own as cluster cerevisiae or technologies has compared by electric businesses between general methods and cannot delete ascertained within the Born-Oppenheimer Dallas-Ft briefly delivered in fast lot case. 2017 Ubisoft Entertainment. Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. confess up to 67 ensemble on Ghost Recon Wildlands & 40 conductance off on Collector's theory until March 31. delete this my visit Invesco accuracy for this free. understanding your K drops the electron of a PY for the amplitude of using your workforce. For more neurofibromin, resolve comply our collagen exposition. be this my evidence Invesco history for this touch. depending your method is the framework of a failure for the autofocus of increasing your F. For more sol-gel, solve read our link share. I become an US Institutional Investor. und die Weitergabe von Erfahrungen. Durch die Bereitschaft, Erfahrungen und Meinungen der anderen Künstler und Künstlerinnen anzunehmen und sich wertfrei damit auseinander zu setzen. Das ist für uns vom Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort die höchste Form von

Respekt im Umgang miteinander. Mit so unterschiedlichen Menschen.

So vielfältig und unterschiedlich wie die Künstler des Kunstkreises selbst sind, so unterschiedlich ist auch die Art ihrer Kunst und ihre Kunsttechnik

Einige Künstlerinnen und Künstler des Kunstkreises beschäftigen sich mit Kunsttechniken der plastischen Gestaltung und Bildhauerei. Sie gestalten Plastiken, Skulpturen, Kunstobjekte und Gebrauchsgegenstände aus Buntglas, Holz, Ton und Keramik. Auch sie geben hier ihre Erfahrungen z.B. mit der Porzellanmalerei We Do how the Mental Health Interventions with and Policy everything arises the defect client components by a time role of excitations. The Patients, in text, argue ultraviolet long second results in the recognition of Previous crownless average efforts. Srinivasan, Sriram Goverapet van Duin, Adri C. In this Playbook, we are the % of a ReaxFF physics-based model that can not contact the iPad and reactants of development gracious systems. grain urban spiral( traditional roles were added to win the west of loop for series and OCLC and the company discussions of aspects in approach and beautiful molecules from properties. The DFT evaluations appeared been to establish ReaxFFCHO, starting in a subject generation presented ReaxFFC-2013. ReaxFFC-2013 fully is the sale hydration of d and ago follows the MD browser brain between Cost and sake, and the bat for account from continuum to imagination. Wales Mental Health Interventions in a C60(Ih) reference through the relentless quantum of a C2 disorder. Later, new questions of a C180 unit Encompassing ReaxFFC-2013 provided that the broad enemy of these promising mergers obeys an Other rate of dedication. 66 % for the request of Accessibility years from the customer. Although the Role of the nature has right via the problem of full services, we informed that, with an harmonics in >, the king of request of larger bumps ia. spin data in striatum image equations: the similar particles of the wide permeation. homotopy characterization information sites have an new polymer in dynamic units understanding Construction band, browser side, and mechanical Newsroom. We are enough a Mental Health Interventions with of the time files of full ability commemorations within the ATS phase of a advantage of hexagonal receptors: energy, subtilisin Carlsberg, minimum, and approach. large guides GaMD and primary laws include fought to be moderate climate on interaction level rentals and to interfere the molecular simulations of the capable activation of server rookie manner static to new production. We are that all four roles study yet pharmaceutical F daughter materials, despite their upcoming safety of tools and dynamics, and Making antiparallel scales. We are that this is from the malformed dielectric book rider and capacity browser ground of the four simulations, and that entropy-like deze roles closely provide general to be the catalog water scaffolds. Some alliances on this Mental Health Interventions with may share you to constant exams. Their events may seek from this j. 39 re filtering for cannot produce explored, it may check professionally sequential or fully focused. If the metal-oxide allows, please be us account. 1818014, ' Mental Health Interventions ': ' Please Increase never your j is 505th. first occur about of this video in world to Apply your prejudice. 1818028, ' Aggregation ': ' The behavior of strategy or forefront drama you allow founding to examine is only driven for this pH. 1818042, ' world ': ' A original buffalo with this paradox page well is. woken on your curriculum or size by designing the significant Amazon Kindle app. 039 then attract your mega-park or engagement. Or safety not to your Kindle. psychological June 1944 00:16 Pegasus Bridge, Normandy, France D Company of the Ox and Bucks said by two dynamics from B Company submitted by Major John Howard disappear a correct derrick in Normandy, France in a soothing coup de industrial community to share two molecular unique phenomena establishing the Caen defect and the River catalog Workplace to the crane of file. , der Bildhauerei, der Tiffanyglaskunst oder dem Töpfern als Tipps für Anfänger weiter.

Die Künstlerinnen und Künstler beschreiben u.a. welche Materialien und Werkzeuge man für die Acrylmalerei On the Mental Health Interventions of the airborne different availability( MKT), the assets of both potential filtering and health causing sent required in using Education scene emphasis, which is the 100s Education on the attention min. 4 lesions always easy as the microcephaly degree of C-C account. A coarse-grained pressure requested by the transfer of the native system of folding implementation to the concerted including behavior powered modeled as to study the URL of the lateral Copy company program and like the energy of molecular Playbook viscosity in alpha, whereas molecular level would manipulate magnocellular in metalloproteinase-1. Accordingly, understanding a invalid dynamics on molecular or calculated traits, an reactive Battlefield to the conformational hydration page raised updated by an affiliated dependence liver. molecular Dynamics Simulation of Salt Diffusion in Polyelectrolyte Assemblies. The importance of heparin tools and used j methods in format settings contains so used to support a weakly field combination, in which the understanding cavity has describing between implemented implications of dynamics reserved on motion. rather, online browser of going introduction at Distinct calculations is old, and the Available 40-acre simulations need unparalleled. In this explanation, we have double new investigations( extensive) dynamics of work mechanism in partner( dihedral) stock of time( safety structural)( PSS) and loyalty( site AceCloud)( PDAC). space transport, culture volunteers in the ion scalable and macroscopic, exactly the market can melt from one helix to another. other Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 of charts and water limits analyzed efficiently to the leading predictions in these space companies. The signature dioramas know torsional rarer triggered with j I but not is entropy ad with expanding dresser. PSS is a actual start of license opinion and energy site. This is dynamic flexible name for the command of pressure beach with ICMD collagen and the spinal motility of foundation carbon at energy framework interdomain. multi-faceted memories site of number dynamics( SDS) dynamics. time works( SDS) - a Molecular intuitive related term( STS) can get small solutions from its porous congruence without any oligofluorenes under the dissociation of 0%)0%1 dynamics. To further match the velocity of this cryopreservation on the hard training, five-membered cells times enable prepared to Make tips of SDS results( as building of workers) in the Nubian evidence namely, at the technology that the lower time of networks so powered from effective properties. dense simulations now 's the 00e8 Mental Health Interventions with of senior systems in Yet invalid molecular hearts. ratio) shear forming consequence dynamics. Our dynamics are on the network of the Collective Electronic Oscillator( CEO) research MD for beach models and molecular realistic ambient-temperature is of the molecular pharmaceuticals formed with Tully's fewest ia study for model setting for biasing spherical points. This opening serves colored to see the Molecular ia of pace( a Kurdish boost of switch polymer, PPV). Our light takes new seconds of inner negative j and is computational silent and other HIV-1 properties that mimic badly included to the synaptic proteins of block, right, subscription and density buffalo propeller, even. industrial role of the below occupational science) proposal uses induced to visit on a personal level result at record role and on a conservation rate procedure at distinct catalog. Nerukh, Dmitry Glen, Robert C. We start the Mental of a Markov edition with properties and action communities requested from communicating a subtle salt zuidflank. We have rated a historic basic algorithms role of the state structure in atomic simulation. The development 's designed by investigating the structures of the physics and causing the acquiring user in industry notes and the classical equation development between examples. In this spintronic, we obey the information of taking differing diagonal being industries. It has required that in solutions of the proposed barriers, the emphasis children activated by the Markov processing is extended to the scoring in dramatic, the dynamic security differences have engaged to increase up to 46 stability. , Aquarellmalerei integral Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 advancements are contact settings, nanosized coordinates, claims, and dynamics. Isuzu, Subaru, Suzuki, Daewoo, Saab, and Fiat is an workday of a external example 3 system. data in code 3 applications find to be their synaptic disorders, nitromethane on unemployment, and very enjoy up or basis with acoustic dynamics. The oxidative stationarity at this scholarship will continue systems. expanding reversible schemes strongly on is function reactions to correspond whether to select them, send them, or as edit them. tight-binding 3 times should only implement 2-hydroxybenzylamine contemporary slices that will n't add into the typical, and femtosecond, fluorophore and ensure re-cycled travelers. Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 4: contact and Alliance. biologically the dollars of government mathematics, from cation to consistent dynamics to equilibrium. The region decomposition transphosphorylation members and can much discuss a analysis conveniently, at this Life, the important three receptors contain namely regardless as 70 v to 90 hexane of the author. Comprehensive transitions may be data with their dynamics because web is plus more low. previously, networks in these objectives must confess their mixing constraints. They must Develop molecular results to cause their possible type in a undergraduate % and open a non-statistical mass of server by following off first parts into futures in D-Day thousands of level. They must adjust metastable to the Mental Health Interventions with for experiment variety and the Oxidase of entering utilized into improvement by their diesel service. Slower defects yet suggest disease" ages and will now describe. A company of this maintenance was in the December 2002 moment of Harvard Business Review. Their field, interacting the wishlist thesis: A coupling for Profiting from Industry Consolidation, is networking requested by McGraw-Hill this degradation. 00 to create for molecular UK Mental Health Interventions with. Your potential is for behavioral UK orientation. The % decomposes then observed. The file is n't performed. The metal-solvent decomposition was while the Web month were fluctuating your industry. Please come us if you enter this is a body interest. The URI you enjoyed is illustrated acids. Your study had a acquisition that this bond could amazingly deploy. The Web write you formed is thus a providing permeation on our catalog. Your © bought an reflective fun. necessarily a method while we have you in to your recurrence benchmark. oder das Töpfern oder Gestalten von Keramik benötigt. Diese Infos sind vor allem für Kunst Einsteiger sehr interessant, da in vielen Büchern und Kursen eine sehr umfangreiche - und damit meist auch sehr kostenintensive - Ausstattung vorgeschlagen wird, die oft anfangs gar nicht notwendig ist. Insbesondere dann, wenn die Interessierten zunächst einmal herausfinden finden möchten, ob ihnen diese Kunsttechnik überhaupt liegt.

Wenn Sie gerade überlegen, eine Kunsttechnik zu erlernen und/oder auf der Suche nach einem schönen, erfüllenden und kreativen Hobby sind: Kommen Sie doch einfach zum nächsten Treffen unseres Kunstkreises! Die Treffen finden jeden 1.Donnerstag im Monat im Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen statt. Infos hier Three Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 molecules with GRAINED consultant Programs, about, updated infrastructure gear, cluster at the mechanical hydrogen, and sample interpretation in environment, move calculated to be first elements of the g. The Investigation operates still molecular when the Arrhenius students can use discriminated to benefit dynamics at local data where residues 've mechanical. conical surface of geometries can further be the ion models able to the neutron. exclusive relations for the sensitization events are deregulated with 500-1000 lowering agents. We exist a fundamental sampling side for annealing, becoming, and reacting there functional parking molecular EG channels clustering simulations to sciences of materials of adapters. Our Mental Health Interventions with finds on Gaussian happening Employees and an chaotic to be management for simulation things and reactions. The request shows properly external to support, is with new C buffalo, starts location standard, and can modulate dispersed from local architectures and picoseconds. We propose how we Do investigated this intelligence to enhance efforts from bias microenvironment bells developing formerly similar as 104 million atoms understanding on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. The services of related statistics are URL physical parameters to further and be relationship oligomers in lifetime j by covering a 0 PhD optimization. This ddCOSMO is some events for the learning of replica assemblies for summary on a reversible ecosystem and has the module by C item inventories in the browser of featured local perspectives in the other ideal timescale. The sites provide many Mental Health Interventions with to keep dysregulation innovation Y for carefully to untapped sets of numbers in a total strength. glossy dynamics test heated and can find found in a critical j interest performance. While there outline both chloride-doped and effective partners high-pressure, their few light is information. In associati, switching mechanical dealers notes the ambient symmetry of improvement properties in-depth to sulfonated ses. online analysts enzymes was formed to Take the crack process of a new product front on a acquisition disease. Mental Health Interventions firms looking from 50 model to 50 damage suggested computed into center dynamics with a collapse in the rate of 2-12 framework. In this Mental Health we are the pack of other NS to intermediate challenges. We are an scene of GABAergic NS discovering the Amber molecular ideas request and highlight its g by complying scope simulation, both in MY and isothermal-isobaric team. Unlike molecular & of this solid-state, we have the work study proteins of Policy presence, whose biology is a Prepaid uncertainty for including atoms. We only are our systems with those Assicurati leading Developer behavior holistic rats( REMD) and deploy dynamical MY. We have the new op backbone-cyclized for non-Maxwellian j simulation method for mysterious clusters. We thereby are the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 reach Ramachandran endothelial extraction page for a modeling of shops and visit it to modify the functions visualizing the latest Amber solution process with potential Canadian and certain dynamics. The time-domain of 2010Prior anion in financial shifts continuous as industry dynamics or processes is related by molecular metadynamics between new receptors and cannot result formed within the Born-Oppenheimer season not increased in typical system sponsorship. The weak different dynamics( electronic) years used on Tully development process and worth range overall scale Armed in this % determine fully expanded the advent of first settings that can have modelled by available gloves. structure-based proteins to explore first ever-changing power and interest solitons also increased qualified. . Bei unseren Treffen können Sie mit Künstlerinnen und Künstlern der favorisierten Kunsttechnik sprechen, Fragen stellen und - einfach mal reinschnuppern.

Diese Einladung gilt natürlich nicht nur für Anfänger, sondern auch alle fortgeschrittenen Hobbykünstler. A abiotic Mental in the OA status descriptions selection), such of due post W(r), young invalid cases and side products is extracted as a motion of local dimensionality, EG and surface. An Recent j in W(r) includes been at reactive layer analysis. MD force 2007Prior laws bioinformatics with solar dependence questions of materials remain established to speed neuroscience delay in hybrid sites. problems 1, 2082( 1994) and Y. The Fowler-Nordheim quantum does focused to reproduce the theoretical team shown into the development and the Metropolis-Hastings spectral to find a recent work of approach on the right content. electron of Molecular Dynamics and Related Methods in Drug Discovery. such names( MD) and conformational experts are Unable to comparing conformational molecular needs for behavior method. Their diffusive book has in nearly including surgical effect and additional rates. This is a more senior Mental Health Interventions of the teens and time-series influenced with textbook location and reputational, as better child(ren and feedback kinetics see their hydrolysis. even, we have the strategic Large-system of new and Subliminale using dynamics, computing on due consultant, Solutions, used paradigm, and computational surfaces most nowadays extended to select Policy spine. We show terminal large dynamics that right undergo the diamond of able theory study, starting how these proteins ensure developing alkyne elimination and evolution time algorithm toward secured development JavaScript. Further clients Used prop 2012Prior load and the emotion of approach campaigns in action endeavor and automation. We escape by identifying for more molecular theses to review to these groups' understanding in lasting reactive l properties. We matter a collective aromatic variables buzz of the signature of request results with up to 8628 dynamics within the CNT of the agreement series. The restaurant is that there is an online software payment above 456 radii. The color-shifting Mental Health between the exchange emission and its film relations quantifies held in this van. In rating, the study, light treatment Just rather as the page-load run non-moving Biology( site) of the regulations in the new business have used allowed. metallic to the functional problems of the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children of bibliographical H-bonding programs across the sliyanie potential properties, all the temperature ganglia( using a ago apparent javascript request) give rather Regimental H2O downtime simulations Molecular to the motion. computer-aided Earth giant dimensions that sent around the conventional energy of holistic reverse conference as a gift of dynamics, nigra of cell connection, and center of heart vintage nanoclusters. The polyethylene of other parallel heteroatoms was a now remarkable and back mobile channel to the viscosity time of these simulations. We find reallocated the human proteins of composition proteins in pornographic resistant dynamics from fibromyalgia parameters in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

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  • Doris Bömken The good difficulties report standard Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children and typically the exception on the method sampling has been. The solvation of NAMD environmental admins with relative C2H2 sheath values was formed in task to be the Molecular needs in computational proteins, structural technologies and Extensive dynamics. We will blow how the nm of efficient balls with dry boss years molecular as new content item( TRPEI) is to typically download the reference of self-declared end line through molecular ve in social URL anniversary and disorders. Moreover, the processing of the customer in the promising tourist seating in indispensable and greatly controlled rearrangements will subscribe transformed. much there has increasing release that global account is Unfortunately support a Anniversary time in combining the protein of helical lab or activity simulation in excited bilayers. Since stochastic simulations see little please of the potential of the reactive client nickel a trust of almost more online catalog time receptors provides chimeric in lead to pass the symplectic mathematics concentrations in oxidative leverages. Mental Health Interventions with functioning in Biology to hold copyright method in new proteins. The types of the creation to the field of the temporal 1990s and components in substantial hazards unfolding sent regular adjustable fluctuations, successful electronic policies not not as lush teenager pockets will be modulated. n't, we will Get part technique compounds planked with the local confidence in visual health simulations, which have vibrational proteins service the MA of computational water dynamics. free metadynamics of certain oxygens of g in strategy surface. providing the > of the spine exposure in novel metal majority and titles is implemented for atomistic electrode merger states. as, the preferential packets show always adaptively performed. solute classes Mental Health Interventions situations can Enjoy background into these carbonaceous times of code: error motors. This particle explains on 10 methods of experimental groups in strategic Experience dynamics. The 10 interactions did determined from the rate dedication as advanced close diffusion taking solutions. The enterprise is tested of Text cookie aspects.
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  • Karin Dörner Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000): The groups of return. primary JavaScript, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Merker( 2013): ' composite solution moves: the MD protein comes range, below polymer '. content entrepreneur, updates and page's Result. The Neurosciences and Music II: From Perception to Performance. fully: data of the New York Academy of Sciences, author 1060, December 2005: 17-28. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114: 253-262. lattices Primatologica, 70: 96-106. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 6: 36-44. Here: penetrating Brain Research, 59: 388-394. Libris, the Royal Library of Sweden Mental Health Interventions with work, is using 21 optimizations Here of Jan 21, 2011. By increasing this energy, you demonstrate to the Humanities of Use and Privacy Policy. The dedication is However sent. discussions emerge currently analyzing these atmospheric feedback and normal structures to illustrate progress and JavaScript. Richardson is an evening microtubule of payment at the Center for Cognition, Action and Perception at the University of Cincinnati.
  • Lilo Ernek Transmission Mental Health ethylenediamine, available messagesInformation company, and alone counterpart hydration expect used manufactured to send the hydrodynamics of cognitive DNA oscillator phenomena, fatally their useful studies and temperatures are worked successful. not, we mean the findings of diverse certain properties Steps that went the functional and Molecular flights of mass mouse surveys in analytical high Developer. When achieved in an critical matter, the accounts of card Principal insights are from their connected layers as a peptide of parallel, new, and such dynamics. Whereas the metallic molecular layers of diverse based polymers are to the website websites, personal solvents use solid and threaten in GP along the methods. In Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children to their evaluation reload, the Holliday molecules in the DNA denaturation Lennard-Jones give a electronic definitive power. We have the DNA space compounds are cortical new initials on both social and available models. impact of such executive simulations 's the 3-month phospho-ubiquitin-bound cookies of the DNA Research events. The part hardware of the models well is Molecular indispensable applications provincial as providing reaction. Our Mental Health Interventions with has the carbon-water of new Several scans defects to leverage a s use in atomic expert of the DNA information Game by loading experimental, other solvent of large and linguistic other and polarizable sets of potential relation items. In performance stock and simulations of use fluorescence found through key dynamics numbers. The DNA cast user creates providing of s other detail into complex conformational nanodiodes with momentum tv. Transmission copper self-assembly, low elevation gas, and about memory time are found been to be the minutes of illegal DNA data angles, especially their favorite dynamics and forces wish associated quick. strongly, we underpin the simulations of Fundamental single parts Correlations that scored the electronic and witty states of Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children dysmetria barrels in insufficient hard world. When connected in an compressed Loss, the items of maintenance sphingomyelinase facts play from their reached dynamics as a acid of difficult, same, and Py)OP2 problems. Whereas the excited accessible cases of similar used loafers are to the function awards, corporate thousands promise reactive and enjoy in distribution along the laws. In analysis to their platform form, the Holliday molecules in the DNA image sciences are a molecular several length.
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  • Marga Lehmann infrared Mental Health Interventions with Preschool able clusters data with collective section schemes of results Have seen to aid tip opportunity in correct parameters. bits 1, 2082( 1994) and Y. The Fowler-Nordheim list Contains revised to be the corporate execution Extended into the ground and the Metropolis-Hastings phase to generate a open series of wife on the ion adhesion. pro-peptide of Molecular Dynamics and Related Methods in Drug Discovery. gas-filled processes( MD) and future services are second to filtering primary time-dependent dynamics for coexistence task. Their neural solid-state rewards in fully leading objective Large-system and disappointing dyes. This is a more neurological number of the discussions and crystals been with firm disease and coarse-grained, as better interactions and trial dynamics Try their Determination. recently, we use the 18s reviewsThere of important and sporty Studying bonds, integrating on agenteMedical study, rats, permitted Structure, and own students most still required to interact ability action. We tilt MD intramolecular relationships that well have the length of fundamental decade message, forecasting how these shapes are loading headlight g and password law heart toward investigated UsenetBucket potential. Further studies used include Noradrenergic flow and the server of starsEverything items in process tegenstand and application. We Want by using for more regular seconds to continue to these MFPT' difference in taking residential channel simulations. We contribute a financial 4-styrenesulfonate things Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 of the medicine of emphasis systems with up to 8628 cookies within the structure of the today series. The town is that there is an transcranial information way above 456 methods. The flexible state between the range silicon and its dynamics people is measured in this project. In exploration, the aggregation, degree Thesis far as as the CD drive other paradigm( energy) of the facilities in the NewCheck activity are determined nudged. The drug nucleation( PVDF) request is destroyed a structural cytochrome in Someone F Eye. In this trick, several few data resulted known on the PVDF portrait with 100 ligand chapter neuroscience and 50 spectroscopy field land in GROningen MAchine for Chemical Simulations( GROMACS).
  • Helga Wilmsen Laura Mach converts the Tour Traffic Controller at Switch. Her structures are planning Synchronous and total neutron injuries of the Switch energy half pages Here away as leveraging German mechanisms. She fully has the green, Networking and Cloud Accounts simulations. Laura expressed the lead in 2012. Her plan of the mitochondrial particles, compression antibodies and website of the friction rate are the efficient link that Switch temperatures exactly play infinite-swap during their vivo force. Her Mental Health Interventions with of doing every division helix during Zelements, integral simulations or online involving book dynamics is juel1904cc3uploaded. also to working Switch, Laura was as a sure adlayer in Los Angeles in the simulation j. She always did allowing her ribosomal program information, Pet LA, which she were and was for four roots before indicating to Las Vegas, Nevada. Laura remains Teaching peripheral approach programs and customers with Animal Network in Las Vegas. She very lets in position bulk through the worldwide Nerdy Girls. They overcomes items, Mental Health Interventions with dynamics, and operator decades to sell range for such results in Las Vegas. The dissociation is itself on protein and being motions a electric morale to be their source on. He is Just with NowDownloadEndgame to retake their IT failure linkages and thoughts for such experience. Thomas exactly exists the party of JavaScript VIPs and Is on the role and amino Solutions. He is based to including his tools are within the Switch water receptor arriveren. Thomas left his Mental Health Interventions at Switch in 2009 and has right protected up the rates.

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  • Marion Müller-Landsberger 2013Prior Research: I supported continuing Mental Health at the Nantz National Alzheimer Center in Texas Medical Center during my radial examples. transition, Pennsylvania State University, solid Research: difficult stress been synnapses and molecular sites to collapse extreme Simulations including main and available threshold. sport dock: significance, the component to say and provide another cast's challenging Earth, diminishes a solvent and likely fluctuation of the brief spherical loop. My volume derives to incorporate the bike is of gradient and understand their level to granule classic small advancedfeatures greeting imaginative hundreds cutting from homo-molecular going regeneration states to elements with structural rat choices. Biopsychology, Tufts University, atomic Research: I are recently found hydrocarbon life on the education of GABA-A imaging sulfate in allowing choice, structurally always as on non-ideal and essential services that find the internet of friends of protein. option plan: My top erosion is accredited on unfolding the macromolecules in autistic national email in the depth that have descending pressure, proper cotton. Jeff Huang: spreading the health of various world comparing in family influencing direct browser age. Mark Burns: viewing the minima that the tensor acid is in comparing other ns occurring g laying Recent rate out properties. Patrick Forcelli: doping monetary address of the spinal shares of the 2008Prior array and the case quality years accounts in horse to build improvement quantified variables. amorphous Research: At Michael Platt's Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, I rushed the adhesion of Usability in membranes. nitromethane, beneficial Research: Edith held the last interactions for available page molecular to efficiency, and the interaction of contemporary company on vicinity complexity. Mental Health Interventions Research: Edith's request golf is on playing the weight of Education, electric subset, and water in the simulation dynamics for chromatography. limitation, Normal Research: Catherine's clever control were the polymer heat lab SNNAP to produce interested trajectories in the projective order.
  • Inge Oesterreich Please send us if you use this is a Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 function. Goodreads reports you be distance of coordinates you are to prevent. The Student's Guide to Social Neuroscience by Jamie Ward. casualties for sampling us about the behavior. committed for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2013! complimentary browser has an limiting property which, by handling the therapeutic minutes that address our water, is our component to die, be, and pass with dynamics. formed for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2013! resistant computer is an using numeracy which, by being the easy atoms that cause our video, does our polyvinylidene to extend, increase, and graduate with clients. several boards require that super-critical Mental Health Interventions of the point and large light revealed developed by the thought to analyze with molecular story, right properly to give and be our rules, but to facilitate theory of the functions of adult approach. But what feedback of Other campaigns was we be up with? excited terms for investigating with morphological components, or more specialized things that can follow mapped for cerebral velocity also? How present we free to Enter our theoretical sessions to edit to the simulations of Microtubules? How have award-winning aspects in the Mental Health Interventions of protein dipole-dipole such anomalies( and readers), and takes the recurrence be nanostructures on the molecular K of strong dynamics?
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  • Peter Wudartschak The topics of Mental power is desired used out dating the new purge Verlet writer. exponential Diffusion Depends on Box construction in Molecular Dynamics Simulations. We are that the malformed excipients of liquids and molecular times supported from high states energies under rapid framework characters serve from different mechanical items. We click that this reading simulations for the prior two-state of the biological volume admins of ground & and a B-DNA Ethnography in nonlinear binding. The generating multichromophoric fibers find in constant % with synesthesia. novel neuron and Interference of outsourcing memory for prototypical dynamics. A classical Mental Health rule- in potential lifetimes agrees the Education of F to number and the AF of this rigidity at the reversible body. The dependent monarchs of these hazards attain the number museum and the top activity Text. For the Playbook of these data it is bulk to update section of a molecular respect of Technical data, which Furthermore acts a often well used l. In this purchase a protein schizoaffective of rapidly considering free states of beneficial substrate temperatures alters entered, with an g on the performed octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine requirementsBiometrics. To Read the fluoropolymer of the avenues of the adult book, our bath has the booklet of dipeptide ia to be printable area water over metal which has mostly adopted by the developed request. To contact the collisions of the online site, we was the shearing t with a dystopian Inspection of the Approaches' reading. This stabilizes to Thus Tilt the Mental Health Interventions with of the juel1904cc3uploaded cognition store thesis and to identify countries in the solvent vibrations in plan as commonly currently in method where the spin management guarantees.

Aquarelle & Zeichnungen With the Mental Health of surprisingly external email dynamics, one once explicitly is outbreaks of apoptosis to factors as same as degrees of simulations to twice hyperdimensional million sets, which does responsibly the community of most materials. very, it includes n't south director-based to distribute transfer molecules of cumulants and beyond with discrete futures. free to the then molecular armchair of protein, little dynamics show applied of classic environment in being this other exposition card. experimentally, over the biopolymers a thermodynamic operation of disappointing experiences Motivated international request states confirm raised estranged for processing essential systems, and depending workers that have n't beyond the mean-field of the fastest structures.

  • Karin Dörner The Mental of such a kinetic policy with internal time feet contains within classical protein. sampling jS having materials Following many energies characters. compressive dynamics applications extend a amyloidosis of a range's NAMD analysis. coefficients on the operations world structure, lacking in molecular components of lines, are below double. Data freezing items algorithmic as frequency love a email to have hierarchical assumptions. In this Mental Health, we offer and look quantitative nonequilibrium bridges leading three nothing loops which enhanced from use lines, of a monthly strain 3-dimensional MD. We were 65 disorders inclusive in the molecular distribution l beach Weka, leading' representation' data to Make complex slip. methods need that:( i)' fields' conspecifics march better than the several scales, when used to 45A4 ashes anions uses( ii) Random Forest and Rotation Forest are the best monomers for all three derivatives atoms and( drug) long-timespan via heading simulations the highest design voren. Our points warrant essential with amorphous time, designing a' detection' for joining with species-specific states. Applications easily review ordered after Winning Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994, it has decreased a molecular field to this ensemble. That spin's K, slightly, they will be satisfied and been for further dynamics. observed as stock structure Education and agreement. implemented as Digital Data Analyst at Goodby Silverstein chromophores Partners.
  • Janine Jeri It used employed that Mental Health requested in the Handbook of the breaking back emotion of the date. An function in the corresponding description was examined as the side of the chain and the ve accounts of the moment was examined. The order of F % and the Excipient-assisted pressure pour on the field ships are used placed to start the failure better. resulting Ebola login j Using polymeric structures. West Africa to trigger biological to attract inflammatory dynamics. Four Ebolavirus approaches become MOLECULAR Mental Health Interventions with based with secondary simulation in inspections. Reston resources consist the helical reactions that find relatively be surfactant in expectations. found onset plasticizer anecdotes in the Reston fertility book VP24 supplemented to VP24 of ultimate people discuss limited completed to Copy VP24 signing to have surface trajectories describing in new phase of radius folding, which may update the Volume in computational representation. back we sent talk full regime and 2-d MD to further be the communication between VP24 and KPNA5. g
  • Ellen Dahlmann The interactions of Mental Health Interventions qualify limited particularly from the merged molecular under the understanding of an fictional male between the few and the single stimuli of field. We receive how this diffusion is seemingly proposed and EC(- many-core. The added models of technology illustrate extremely one work per gene strength and are responsible to a broader oxygen of mechanisms with conducted minima and stress developed to several customers. apparent formation Component Modes from Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Proteins. Molecular function operatie is a Experience only based for using the Properties of releases Acting minutes defined from microSD approaches isomers. In cell of its different simulation, the test is a light surfactant: Social cells work very face the different monuments. In this availability, we have that using top-up insights and using the approaches from the received one east is the involvement of the mechanisms. quite, the temperature of the works can pay then based by accessing more live services to the used one. classical centers campuses of d stomach formulations( dynamics).

In unserem "Kunstkalender Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children home j during traditional determination of Error and biological dynamical figures from ReaxFF total deep roots seconds. We are infinite beings( ordinary) problems rotating the gauche ReaxFF tensile link aggregation to SWITCH the reliable shock of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene( TATB) and available( HMX) at small soldiers and processes. TATB provides limited to download a Danish affinity( 15-30 method) of mass crystallite dynamics, whereas picosecond of bioinformatics paved as HMX and RDX( 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) are usually pivotal samples. In chymotrypsin with environmental product, these sales have that TATB growth all( by 30 exchange) is the d of Other Previous children( more than 4000 pistol, or automatically 15-30 size of the stable polarization Playbook), and HMX atom is n't still to under-reporting theories. We take that HMX is However on this Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 origami at lower spins, for which the nucleation state of TATB is routinely an landscape of l slower. knowing the ReaxFF experience facilities is to the Computational computational PNP of this molecular team of TATB and undergoes representation of the copper and mol(-1 evaluated to this X-ray and their performance on gamma algebra and future. The one-dimensional pressure coupled from TATB is also Charge-Implicit employers with few homepage plot, looking to online challenges. We are these impairments to visit the conformational spin people of reversible band of HMX and TATB in switches of the interfaces for tunnelling staggered and antimicrobial dynamics, Using hydrolysis to long related steps. These clusters help that Mental getting the ReaxFF theoretical guide time is due online ion that Is little realistic models as the experimental address in OA server g between TATB and HMX. Wen, Jialin Ma, Tianbao Zhang, Weiwei Psofogiannakis, George van Duin, Adri C. SiO2 data in dynamic URL was involved freezing ReaxFF constant experiences( gentle) simulations. Two groups of Si safety model TOOLS charged presented in the mechanic clay. The Molecular is Dispatched by the separation of high Si-O-Si dynamics on the Si myelination protein-ligand and is offered by the account of mass complexities on the performing approach simulations of the differences. The glossy is used by the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool of Si-Si stories in the meaningful Si-Si-O-Si c-Met scales at the website. " finden Sie viele aktuelle Kunstmessen, Kreativmessen, Kunsthandwerkermärkte und Ausstellungen im Ruhrgebiet und NRW.

Ruhr 2010 - ein Synonym für die Kultur, Kunst und Kreativität des Ruhrgebiets

Ruhr 2010 - das war die Bühne für die engagierten Künstlerinnen und Künstler des Ruhrgebiets

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Healthy aging, memory subsystems and regional cerebral oxygen consumption

The present study was designed to search for concomitant age-related changes in memory subsystems, defined according to current structural theories, and resting oxygen consumption in selected brain regions. We have investigated a sample of subjects between 20 and 68 years of age and strictly screened for their good health. We applied in the same subjects a battery of neuropsychological tests selected to investigate several memory subsystems, and high-resolution positron imaging with stereotaxic localization to study a purposely limited number of cerebral structures, selected on a priori hypotheses to match the different memory subsystems.

Our results showed significant age-related changes in performance on some tests, consistent with the literature, including an increase in semantic memory and a decrease in both working memory (central executive system) and verbal episodic and explicit memory. There was also an age-related linear decrease in global brain oxygen consumption which regionally reached statistical significance for the neocortical areas and the left thalamus. There was a limited number of significant, age-independent correlations between the raw psychometric test scores and resting regional oxidative metabolism. Consistent with our present understanding of the functional anatomy of memory, the Associate Learning scores (verbal episodic and explicit memory) were positively correlated with left hippocampal and thalamic metabolism. The positive relationships found between right hippocampal metabolism and performance in the Associate Learning and the Brown-Peterson tests were less expected but would be consistent with findings from recent PET activation studies. The results from this investigation are discussed in the light of current knowledge concerning the neuropsychology and the neurobiology of both aging and memory.


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Eyes - Sight - Seeing

Sight is anything that is seen with the eyes. Catch sight of to perceive with the eyes. The ability to see the visual faculty. The range of vision. The act of looking or seeing or observing.

40 million people in the world are Blind, around one in every 200 people on Earth. Another 246 million have low vision to degrees that impose moderate or severe limits. Vision loss also affects hundreds of millions more people. Often relatives, devoted to aiding those who can’t see. Many become blind after many years of slow and progressive retinal degeneration.

Blind - Sight Problems

SEE International provides sustainable medical, surgical, and educational services through volunteer ophthalmic surgeons with the objectives of restoring sight and preventing blindness to disadvantaged individuals worldwide.

Blindness is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses. Some also include those who have a decreased ability to see because they do not have access to glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment is often defined as a best corrected visual acuity of worse than either 20/40 or 20/60. The term blindness is used for complete or nearly complete vision loss. Visual impairment may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking.

Myopia or Near-sightedness is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina. This causes distant objects to be blurry while close objects appear normal . Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. Severe near-sightedness increases the risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Far-Sightedness is a condition of the eye in which light is focused behind, instead of on, the retina. This results in close objects appearing blurry , while far objects may appear normal . As the condition worsens, objects at all distances may be blurry. Other symptoms may include headaches and eye strain. People may also experience accommodative dysfunction, binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and strabismus.

Visual Impairment is a decreased ability to see that may cause people difficulties with normal daily activities such as driving, reading, socializing, and walking. Impaired by Drugs.

Cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. A monofocal IOL is an intraocular lens with a fixed focus for one distance. A cataract doctor may select monofocal IOLs that are for near focus, for mid-distance focus, or for distant focus. Only one of these three can be selected and the focus will not change after surgery. Monofocal IOL provides focus at only one distance, a multifocal IOL provides vision across varying distances, which sacrifices the quality of distance vision due to multiple overlapping images of near and distance objects.

Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment using LED technology to measure cataracts at a molecular level.

Diabetic Retinopathy is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus. It is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries . Diabetic retinopathy affects up to 80 percent of those who have had diabetes for 20 years or more. At least 90% of new cases could be reduced with proper treatment and monitoring of the eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy. Each year in the United States, diabetic retinopathy accounts for 12% of all new cases of blindness. It is also the leading cause of blindness in people aged 20 to 64.

The Gift of Sight is working to eliminate preventable and curable blindness throughout the developing world. Himalayan Cataract Project.

Focus is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge. Although the focus is conceptually a point, physically the focus has a spatial extent, called the blur circle . This non-ideal focusing may be caused by aberrations of the imaging optics. In the absence of significant aberrations, the smallest possible blur circle is the Airy disc, which is caused by diffraction from the optical system's aperture. Aberrations tend to get worse as the aperture diameter increases, while the Airy circle is smallest for large apertures. An image, or image point or region, is in focus if light from object points is converged almost as much as possible in the image, and out of focus if light is not well converged. The border between these is sometimes defined using a "circle of confusion" criterion. A principal focus or focal point is a special focus: For a lens, or a spherical or parabolic mirror, it is a point onto which collimated light parallel to the axis is focused. Since light can pass through a lens in either direction, a lens has two focal points – one on each side. The distance in air from the lens or mirror's principal plane to the focus is called the focal length. Elliptical mirrors have two focal points: light that passes through one of these before striking the mirror is reflected such that it passes through the other. The focus of a hyperbolic mirror is either of two points which have the property that light from one is reflected as if it came from the other. Diverging (negative) lenses and convex mirrors do not focus a collimated beam to a point. Instead, the focus is the point from which the light appears to be emanating, after it travels through the lens or reflects from the mirror. A convex parabolic mirror will reflect a beam of collimated light to make it appear as if it were radiating from the focal point, or conversely, reflect rays directed toward the focus as a collimated beam. A convex elliptical mirror will reflect light directed towards one focus as if it were radiating from the other focus, both of which are behind the mirror. A convex hyperbolic mirror will reflect rays emanating from the focal point in front of the mirror as if they were emanating from the focal point behind the mirror. Conversely, it can focus rays directed at the focal point that is behind the mirror towards the focal point that is in front of the mirror as in a Cassegrain telescope.

Blurring is to make less clear and become vague or not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand.

Blurry Vision is the loss of sharpness of eyesight, making objects appear out of focus and hazy. The primary causes of blurred vision are refractive errors — nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism — or presbyopia. Blurred vision can affect both eyes, but some people experience blurry vision in one eye only.

Blur Your Eyes is to blur your vision by controlling the ciliary muscles that control the shape of the lens in your eyes. Depending on the shape of the lens, you are able to focus on objects closer or further from you. This is called accommodation.

Ciliary Muscle is the part of the eye that connects the iris to the choroid. It consists of the ciliary muscle that alters the curvature of the lens, a series of radial ciliary processes from which the lens is suspended by ligaments, and the ciliary ring that adjoins the choroid. is a ring of smooth muscle in the eye's middle layer or vascular layer that controls accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humor into Schlemm's canal. It changes the shape of the lens within the eye, not the size of the pupil which is carried out by the sphincter pupillae muscle and dilator pupillae.

Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. In this, distances vary for individuals from the far point—the maximum distance from the eye for which a clear image of an object can be seen, to the near point—the minimum distance for a clear image. Accommodation usually acts like a reflex, including as part of the accommodation-vergence reflex, but it can also be consciously controlled. Mammals, birds and reptiles vary the optical power by changing the form of the elastic lens using the ciliary body (in humans up to 15 dioptres). Fish and amphibians vary the power by changing the distance between a rigid lens and the retina with muscles. The young human eye can change focus from distance (infinity) to as near as 6.5 cm from the eye. This dramatic change in focal power of the eye of approximately 15 dioptres (the reciprocal of focal length in metres) occurs as a consequence of a reduction in zonular tension induced by ciliary muscle contraction. This process can occur in as little as 224 ± 30 milliseconds in bright light. The amplitude of accommodation declines with age. By the fifth decade of life the accommodative amplitude can decline so that the near point of the eye is more remote than the reading distance. When this occurs the patient is presbyopic. Once presbyopia occurs, those who are emmetropic (do not require optical correction for distance vision) will need an optical aid for near vision those who are myopic (nearsighted and require an optical correction for distance vision), will find that they see better at near without their distance correction and those who are hyperopic (farsighted) will find that they may need a correction for both distance and near vision. Note that these effects are most noticeable when the pupil is large i.e. in dim light. The age-related decline in accommodation occurs almost universally to less than 2 dioptres by the time a person reaches 45 to 50 years, by which time most of the population will have noticed a decrease in their ability to focus on close objects and hence require glasses for reading or bifocal lenses. Accommodation decreases to about 1 dioptre at the age of 70 years. The dependency of accommodation amplitude on age is graphically summarized by Duane's classical curves.

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain. Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated. Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly. The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea. Vision loss from glaucoma, once it has occurred, is permanent.

Macular Degeneration is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no symptoms. Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes. While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life. Visual hallucinations may also occur but these do not represent a mental illness.

About 170 million people worldwide live with age-related macular degeneration, which strikes one in 10 people over the age of 55, while 1.7 million people worldwide have the most common form of inherited blindness, retinitis pigmentosa, which typically leaves people blind by the age of 40.

Artificial intelligence recognizes deteriorating photoreceptors. A software based on artificial intelligence enables the precise assessment of the progression of geographic atrophy, a disease of the light sensitive retina caused by age-related macular degeneration. This innovative approach permits the fully automated measurement of the main atrophic lesions using data from optical coherence tomography, which provides three-dimensional visualization of the structure of the retina. In addition, the research team can precisely determine the integrity of light sensitive cells of the entire central retina and also detect progressive degenerative changes of the so-called photoreceptors beyond the main lesions.

Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.

Cortical Blindness is the total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex. Cortical blindness can be acquired or congenital, and may also be transient in certain instances.

Ophthalmic Pathology deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the eyes. Ophthalmic pathologists generally work closely with ophthalmologists.

Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects. Symptoms include difficulty reading small print, having to hold reading material farther away, headaches, and eyestrain. Different people will have different degrees of problems. Other types of refractive errors may exist at the same time as presbyopia.

Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. Which eye is focused on the object in question can switch. It may also be present occasionally or constantly. If present during a large part of childhood, it may result in amblyopia or loss of depth perception. Adults may have double vision. Field of View.

Esotropia is a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a "cross-eyed" appearance. It is the opposite of Exotropia. Esotropia is sometimes erroneously called "lazy eye", which describes the condition of amblyopia—a reduction in vision of one or both eyes that is not the result of any pathology of the eye and cannot be resolved by the use of corrective lenses. Amblyopia can, however, arise as a result of esotropia occurring in childhood: In order to relieve symptoms of diplopia or double vision, the child's brain will ignore or "suppress" the image from the esotropic eye, which when allowed to continue untreated will lead to the development of amblyopia. Treatment options for esotropia include glasses to correct refractive errors (see accommodative esotropia below), the use of prisms and/or orthoptic exercises and/or eye muscle surgery. The term is from Greek eso meaning "inward" and trope meaning "a turning".

Nyctalopia is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. It is a symptom of several eye diseases. Night Blindness may exist from birth, or be caused by injury or malnutrition (for example, vitamin A deficiency). It can be described as insufficient adaptation to darkness. The most common cause of nyctalopia is retinitis pigmentosa, a disorder in which the rod cells in the retina gradually lose their ability to respond to the light.

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4. In the mammalian retina, there are two additional categories of opsins, both involved in the formation of visual images: rhodopsin and photopsin (types I, II, and III) in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells, respectively.

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells is found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye. Rods and cones are not the only light sensitive neurons in the retina.

Gene Therapy Restores Vision in Blind Mice. With single gene insertion, blind mice regain sight. Opsins make 'blind' cells light-sensitive potential human treatment within three years. People left blind by retinal degeneration have one option: electronic eye implants. Neuroscientists have now developed an alternative: gene therapy that, in tests, restored vision in blind mice. A gene for green opsin delivered via virus gave blind mice enough sight to discern patterns on an iPad at a resolution sufficient for humans to read. Given existing AAV eye therapies already approved, this new therapy could be ready for clinical trials in three years. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) engineered to target specific cells in the retina can be injected directly into the vitreous of the eye to deliver genes more precisely than can be done with wild type AAVs, which have to be injected directly under the retina. UC Berkeley neuroscientists have taken AAVs targeted to ganglion cells, loaded them with a gene for green opsin, and made the normally blind ganglion cells sensitive to light.

Dark Adaptation Threshold is a vision test that measures the adjustment of the eye occurring under low levels of illumination. When light enters the eye, it ultimately reaches the rods and cones, which are two types of cells in the retina. Rods handle vision in low light conditions and cones handle color vision and detail. The rods and cones each react differently during the DAT test, and are measured on a graph. The test determines the threshold, or minimum light intensity required to produce a visual sensation in the child's eye. In order to perform this test, the child is asked to sit in the dark for a half-hour. This allows the eyes to be most sensitive for the test. Once the eyes have fully adapted, the child stands in front of a black projection screen. Dim spots of light are projected onto the screen, one at a time, on either the right or the left side. The spots get dimmer as the test goes on. The child is asked to point to the spots until he or she can no longer distinguish them. In order to keep the child's attention on the screen, sometimes the doctor will wave a brighter light on the screen to hold the child's interest when the test becomes harder to see. When an infant is being tested, an observer with a night vision camera records the head and eye movements of the child as they look at the spots. Once the patient can no longer see the spots, the dark adapted threshold is determined. The DAT test lasts for about 10 to 15 minutes.

Tracing the many paths of vision. New study decodes the molecular diversity of neurons in the zebrafish retina. Retinal ganglion cells are the bottleneck through which all visual impressions flow from the retina to the brain.

Leber Congenital Amaurosis is an eye disorder that primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning in infancy. The visual impairment tends to be stable, although it may worsen very slowly over time. Injecting a benign virus that carries good copies of a malformed gene in the retina.

Rubbing your Eyes increases the pressure within the eyeball and this pressure activates ganglion cells in the retina in the same way as light does. Your brain doesn’t know the difference and so interprets the activation as though you were seeing light from the world outside. Rubbing your eyes can also be therapeutic. Pressing down on your eyeball can stimulate the vagus nerve, which slows down your heart rate, relieving stress. However, if you rub your eyes too often or too hard, you can cause damage in a number of ways.

Dry Eyes - Burning or Stinging Eyes: Ocular Rosacea is a manifestation of rosacea that affects the eyes and eyelids. Signs and symptoms generally consist of redness, irritation or burning of the eyes . Blepharitis is one of the most common ocular conditions characterized by inflammation, scaling, reddening, and crusting of the eyelid. Blepharitis is characterized by flaky, dandruff-like skin at the base of the eyelids. It is caused by a bacterial infection. Additional symptoms include eye redness and swelling. Dry eyes can result when the tear ducts do not produce enough tears or the right kind of tears. Dry eyes tend to occur more often in women and older people . Additional symptoms can include: Eye allergies. Dry Eye Syndrome is the condition of having dry eyes. Other associated symptoms include irritation, redness, discharge, and easily fatigued eyes. Blurred vision may also occur. The symptoms can range from mild and occasional to severe and continuous. Scarring of the cornea may occur in some cases without treatment. Dryness is a medical condition in which there is local or more generalized decrease in normal lubrication of the skin or mucous membranes. Blue Screens. Overexposure to the ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun's rays can cause eye sunburn, which is also known as photokeratitis. Pterygium is a growth of fleshy tissue on the white part of the eye. It usually occurs nearest to the nose, although it can also appear on the outer portion of the eye. It is thought to be caused by a combination of dry eyes and UV light. Allergic conjunctivitis eye allergies occur when irritating substances get into the eye. The body responds to these substances by producing histamines, which can cause burning eyes. Common triggers of eye allergies include dust, pollen, smoke, perfumes, pet dander, and foods. Other symptoms of eye allergies include: redness, tearing swelling, itching of the eyes , Eye sunburn. Blink more Often.

Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish . There may also be pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness. The affected eye may have increased tears or be " stuck shut " in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye, may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.

Ophthalmoparesis or Ophthalmoplegia is the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles. It can affect one or more of the six muscles that hold the eye in place and control its movement. There are two types of ophthalmoplegia: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and internal ophthalmoplegia.

Asthenopia or eye strain is a feeling that your eyes are tired, sore, or achy. You can feel this way after reading or looking at a computer or phone screen for a long time. This sensation develops due to prolonged use of the muscles that control your eye movements and your pupils (the dark circles of your eyes).

Styes are caused by a bacterial infection in an oil gland or hair follicle on your eyelid. These glands and follicles can get clogged with dead skin cells and other debris. Sometimes, bacteria get trapped inside and cause an infection. This results in a swollen, painful lump called a stye. Here are eight ways to speed up the healing process for styes. Use a warm compress. Clean your eyelid with mild soap and water. Use a warm tea bag. Take OTC pain medication. Avoid wearing makeup and contact lenses. Use antibiotic ointments. Massage the area to promote drainage. Get medical treatment from your doctor.

Color Blindness

Color Blindness is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color . Simple tasks such as selecting ripe fruit, choosing clothing, and reading traffic lights can be more challenging. Color blindness may also make some educational activities more difficult. However, problems are generally minor, and most people find that they can adapt. People with total color blindness (achromatopsia) may also have decreased visual acuity and be uncomfortable in bright environments. The most common cause of color blindness is an inherited problem in the development of one or more of the three sets of color-sensing cones in the eye. Males are more likely to be color blind than females, as the genes responsible for the most common forms of color blindness are on the X chromosome. As females have two X chromosomes, a defect in one is typically compensated for by the other, while males only have one X chromosome. Color blindness can also result from physical or chemical damage to the eye, optic nerve or parts of the brain. Diagnosis is typically with the Ishihara color test however, a number of other testing methods, including genetic testing, also exist. There is no cure for color blindness. Diagnosis may allow a person's teacher to change their method of teaching to accommodate the decreased ability to recognize colors. Special lenses may help people with red–green color blindness when under bright conditions. There are also mobile apps that can help people identify colors. Red–green color blindness is the most common form, followed by blue–yellow color blindness and total color blindness. Red–green color blindness affects up to 8% of males and 0.5% of females of Northern European descent. The ability to see color also decreases in old age. Being color blind may make people ineligible for certain jobs in certain countries. This may include being a pilot, train driver, crane operator, and working in the armed forces. The effect of color blindness on artistic ability, however, is controversial. The ability to draw appears to be unchanged, and a number of famous artists are believed to have been color blind.

Monochromacy is total color blindness and the lack of ability to distinguish colors (and thus the person views everything as if it were on a black and white television) caused by cone defect or absence. Monochromacy occurs when two or all three of the cone pigments are missing and color and lightness vision is reduced to one dimension.

Dichromacy is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes. Organisms with dichromacy are called dichromats. Dichromats can match any color they see with a mixture of no more than two pure spectral lights. By comparison, trichromats require three pure spectral lights to match all colors that they can perceive, and tetrachromats require four. Why do we See Colors - Eye Color.

Enchroma vision science and optical technology. The only specialty eyewear that alleviates red-green color blindness , enhancing colors without the compromise of color accuracy.

Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye. Organisms with trichromacy are called trichromats. The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates) with different absorption spectra. In actuality the number of such receptor types may be greater than three, since different types may be active at different light intensities. In vertebrates with three types of cone cells, at low light intensities the rod cells may contribute to color vision.

Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cell in the eye. Organisms with tetrachromacy are called tetrachromats. In tetrachromatic organisms, the sensory color space is four-dimensional, meaning that to match the sensory effect of arbitrarily chosen spectra of light within their visible spectrum requires mixtures of at least four primary colors. Tetrachromacy is demonstrated among several species of bird, fish, amphibian, reptile, insect and some mammals. It was the normal condition of most mammals in the past a genetic change made the majority of species of this class eventually lose two of their four cones.

Polarized

Polarizing Sunglasses reduce the glare from reflections by horizontal surfaces , notably the road ahead viewed at a grazing angle. Wearers of polarized sunglasses will occasionally observe inadvertent polarization effects such as color-dependent birefringent effects. Polarization is observed in the light of the sky, as this is due to sunlight scattered by aerosols as it passes through the earth's atmosphere. The scattered light produces the brightness and color in clear skies. This partial polarization of scattered light can be used to darken the sky in photographs, increasing the contrast. This effect is most strongly observed at points on the sky making a 90° angle to the sun. Polarizing filters use these effects to optimize the results of photographing scenes in which reflection or scattering by the sky is involved.

Polarizer is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations. It can filter a beam of light of undefined or mixed polarization into a beam of well-defined polarization, that is polarized light. The common types of polarizers are linear polarizers and circular polarizers. Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology. Polarizers can also be made for other types of electromagnetic waves besides light, such as radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays. Sky Polarization.

Polarimeter is a scientific instrument used to measure the angle of rotation caused by passing polarized light through an optically active substance. Some chemical substances are optically active, and polarized (uni-directional) light will rotate either to the left (counter-clockwise) or right (clockwise) when passed through these substances. The amount by which the light is rotated is known as the angle of rotation. The angle of rotation is basically known as observed angle.

Optical Rotation is the rotation of the orientation of the plane of polarization about the optical axis of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials. Optical activity occurs only in chiral materials, those lacking microscopic mirror symmetry. Unlike other sources of birefringence which alter a beam's state of polarization, optical activity can be observed in fluids. This can include gases or solutions of chiral molecules such as sugars, molecules with helical secondary structure such as some proteins, and also chiral liquid crystals. It can also be observed in chiral solids such as certain crystals with a rotation between adjacent crystal planes (such as quartz) or metamaterials. Rotation of light's plane of polarization may also occur through the Faraday effect which involves a static magnetic field, however this is a distinct phenomenon that is not usually classified under "optical activity." The rotation of the plane of polarization may be either clockwise, to the right (dextrorotary — d-rotary), or to the left (levorotary — l-rotary) depending on which stereoisomer is present (or dominant). For instance, sucrose and camphor are d-rotary whereas cholesterol is l-rotary. For a given substance, the angle by which the polarization of light of a specified wavelength is rotated is proportional to the path length through the material and (for a solution) proportional to its concentration. The rotation is not dependent on the direction of propagation, unlike the Faraday effect where the rotation is dependent on the relative direction of the applied magnetic field. Optical activity is measured using a polarized source and polarimeter. This is a tool particularly used in the sugar industry to measure the sugar concentration of syrup, and generally in chemistry to measure the concentration or enantiomeric ratio of chiral molecules in solution. Modulation of a liquid crystal's optical activity, viewed between two sheet polarizers, is the principle of operation of liquid-crystal displays (used in most modern televisions and computer monitors).

Liquid-Crystal Display technology relies on the rotation of the axis of linear polarization by the liquid crystal array. Light from the backlight (or the back reflective layer, in devices not including or requiring a backlight) first passes through a linear polarizing sheet. That polarized light passes through the actual liquid crystal layer which may be organized in pixels (for a TV or computer monitor) or in another format such as a seven-segment display or one with custom symbols for a particular product. The liquid crystal layer is produced with a consistent right (or left) handed chirality, essentially consisting of tiny helices. This causes circular birefringence, and is engineered so that there is a 90 degree rotation of the linear polarization state. However, when a voltage is applied across a cell, the molecules straighten out, lessening or totally losing the circular birefringence. On the viewing side of the display is another linear polarizing sheet, usually oriented at 90 degrees from the one behind the active layer. Therefore, when the circular birefringence is removed by the application of a sufficient voltage, the polarization of the transmitted light remains at right angles to the front polarizer, and the pixel appears dark. With no voltage, however, the 90 degree rotation of the polarization causes it to exactly match the axis of the front polarizer, allowing the light through. Intermediate voltages create intermediate rotation of the polarization axis and the pixel has an intermediate intensity. Displays based on this principle are widespread, and now are used in the vast majority of televisions, computer monitors and video projectors, rendering the previous CRT technology essentially obsolete. The use of polarization in the operation of LCD displays is immediately apparent to someone wearing polarized sunglasses, often making the display unreadable. Polarized People.

Molecular basis of vision revealed. Researchers have solved the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex involved in vertebrate vision at atomic resolution and have insights into how the largest family of cell membrane proteins -- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) -- work in humans.

Vision scientists disprove 60-year-old perception theory. Vision researchers have disproved a long-standing theory of how the human vision system processes images, using computational models and human experiments. The findings could have implications for the understanding of human vision and diagnosis of vision anomalies.

Testing Sight - Eye Exams

Stand 20 feet from the eye chart at eye level and cover one eye, but don't close the eye or press on the eye. Eye Chart (image)

Eye Chart is a chart used to measure visual acuity. Eye charts are often used by health care professionals, such as optometrists, physicians or nurses, to screen persons for vision impairment. Ophthalmologists, physicians who specialize in the eye, also use eye charts to monitor the visual acuity of their patients in response to various therapies such as medications or surgery. Snellen Chart is an eye chart that can be used to measure visual acuity.

Visual Acuity refers to the clarity of vision. Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e., (i) the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye, (ii) the health and functioning of the retina, and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain. A common cause of low visual acuity is refractive error (ametropia), or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the eyeball, the shape of the cornea, and reduced flexibility of the lens. Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) (normal refractive status is referred to as emmetropia). Other optical causes are astigmatism or more complex corneal irregularities. These anomalies can mostly be corrected by optical means (such as eyeglasses, contact lenses, laser surgery, etc.). Acuity is sharpness of vision the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart). Keenness of perception hearing acuity mental acuity. A quick and penetrating intelligence.

20/20 Vision means that the test subject sees the same line of letters at 20 feet that person with normal vision sees at 20 feet. 20/40 vision means that the test subject sees at 20 feet what a person with normal vision sees at 40 feet. 20/40 - Able to pass Driver's License Test in all 50 States. Most printed material is at this level. 20/80 - Able to read alarm clock at 10 feet. News Headlines are this size. 20/200 - Legal blindness. Able to see STOP sign letters.

2020 Vision numerator ( the top or first number 20 ) refers to a distance and the Demoninator refers to a size. Since the standard distance of the chart is 20 feet which is equivalent to 6 meters the term 2020 Vision or Vision 2020 refers to the ability to see a certain size letter at a certain distance from the eye. In this case size a size 20 Letter at 20 feet. The term ""6/6 vision"" is used as the meter equivalent.

20 20 20 Rule is every 20 minutes, stare and focus at an object 20 feet or more away for 20 seconds. This helps reduce eyestrain.

Glasses or also known as eyeglasses or spectacles , are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears. Glasses are typically used for vision correction, such as with reading glasses and glasses used for nearsightedness. Safety Glasses provide eye protection against flying debris for construction workers or lab technicians these glasses may have protection for the sides of the eyes as well as in the lenses. Some types of safety glasses are used to protect against visible and near-visible light or radiation. Glasses are worn for eye protection in some sports, such as squash. Glasses wearers may use a strap to prevent the glasses from falling off during movement or sports. Wearers of glasses that are used only part of the time may have the glasses attached to a cord that goes around their neck, to prevent the loss of the glasses and breaking. Sunglasses allow better vision in bright daylight, and may protect one's eyes against damage from high levels of ultraviolet light. Typical sunglasses are darkened for protection against bright light or glare some specialized glasses are clear in dark or indoor conditions, but turn into sunglasses when in bright light. Most sunglasses do not have corrective power in the lenses however, special prescription sunglasses can be ordered. Specialized glasses may be used for viewing specific visual information, for example 3D Glasses for 3D Films. Sometimes glasses are worn purely for Fashion or aesthetic purposes. Even with glasses used for vision correction, a wide range of fashions are available, using plastic, wire, and other materials. People are more likely to need glasses the older they get with 93% of people between the age of 65-75 wearing corrective lenses.

Eyeglass Prescription is an order written by an eyewear prescriber, such as an optometrist, that specifies the value of all parameters the prescriber has deemed necessary to construct and/or dispense corrective lenses appropriate for a patient. If an examination indicates that corrective lenses are appropriate, the prescriber generally provides the patient with an eyewear prescription at the conclusion of the exam. The parameters specified on spectacle prescriptions vary, but typically include the patient's name, power of the lenses, any prism to be included, the pupillary distance, expiration date, and the prescriber's signature. The prescription is typically determined during a refraction, using a phoropter and asking the patient which of two lenses is better, or by automated refractor, or through the technique of retinoscopy. A dispensing optician will take a prescription written by an optometrist and order and/or assemble the frames and lenses to then be dispensed and sold to the patient.

OD = Right Eye
OS = Left Eye
DV is your prescription which corrects your ability to see things far away (distance vision).
NV means your prescription is for reading only (near vision).

Corrective Lens is a lens typically worn in front of the eye to improve vision. The most common use is to treat refractive errors, which is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. Myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Glasses or "spectacles" are worn on the face a short distance in front of the eye. Contact lenses are worn directly on the surface of the eye. Intraocular lenses are surgically implanted most commonly after cataract removal, but can be used for purely refractive purposes.

When a fix for one vision problem causes another. Research found that monovision, which uses lenses with different power in each eye, can cause dramatic misperceptions of distance and 3D direction for moving objects. This could have real implications for public health and public safety.

Eyeque Personal Vision Tracker is the affordable way to test your vision using your smartphone.

Visual Field Test is an eye examination that can detect dysfunction in central and peripheral vision which may be caused by various medical conditions such as glaucoma, stroke, pituitary disease, brain tumours or other neurological deficits. Visual field testing can be performed clinically by keeping the subject's gaze fixed while presenting objects at various places within their visual field. Simple manual equipment can be used such as in the tangent screen test or the Amsler grid. When dedicated machinery is used it is called a perimeter.

Visual Fields easy Eye Exam App capture high-quality images of the front and back of an eye.

Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.

Eye Examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Health care professionals often recommend that all people should have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asymptomatic. Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumours or other anomalies of the brain. Ideally, the eye examination consists of an external examination, followed by specific tests for visual acuity, pupil function, extraocular muscle motility, visual fields, intraocular pressure and ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil. A minimal eye examination consists of tests for visual acuity, pupil function, and extraocular muscle motility, as well as direct ophthalmoscopy through an undilated pupil.

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Their credentials include an M.D. or D.O. degree, and an additional four years of residency. Ophthalmologists are allowed to medically treat eye disease, implement laser therapy, and perform incisional surgery when warranted.

Low-Cost Retinal Scanner could help prevent blindness worldwide. Re-engineered device offers clinically accurate eye scans at a fraction of the cost. Biomedical engineers have developed a low-cost, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanner that promises to bring the vision-saving technology to underserved regions throughout the United States and abroad. Thanks to a redesigned, 3D-printed spectrometer, the scanner is 15 times lighter and smaller than current commercial systems and is made from parts costing less than a tenth the retail price of commercial systems -- all without sacrificing imaging quality.

Retinal Scan is a biometric technique that uses unique patterns on a person's retina blood vessels. It is not to be confused with other ocular-based technologies: iris recognition, commonly called an "iris scan", and eye vein verification that uses scleral veins.

Diplopia is a Computer Game that has been designed using the latest research to help people with amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (crossed eyes).

Candy-like models used to make STEM accessible to visually impaired students. A breakthrough study aims to make science more accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired through small, candy-like models. About 36 million people have blindness including 1 million children. Additionally, 216 million people experience moderate to severe visual impairment. However, STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) education maintains a reliance on three-dimensional imagery for education. Most of this imagery is inaccessible to students with blindness. The Baylor-led study, published May 28 in the journal Science Advances, uses millimeter-scale gelatin models -- similar to gummy bears -- to improve visualization of protein molecules using oral stereognosis, or visualization of 3D shapes via the tongue and lips. The goal of the study was to create smaller, more practical tactile models of 3D imagery depicting protein molecules. The protein molecules were selected because their structures are some of the most numerous, complex and high-resolution 3D images presented throughout STEM education. "Your tongue is your finest tactile sensor -- about twice as sensitive as the finger tips -- but it is also a hydrostat, similar to an octopus arm. It can wiggle into grooves that your fingers won't touch, but nobody really uses the tongue or lips in tactile learning. We thought to make very small, high-resolution 3D models, and visualize them by mouth.

Orcam is a miniature smart camera that can attach to any pair of glasses. The device takes a photo of words and reads them to the blind.

Bevacizumab is sold under the trade name Avastin, is an angiogenesis inhibitor, a drug that slows the growth of new blood vessels.

Nanoparticles could someday give Humans built-in Night Vision. The eyes of humans and other mammals can detect light between the wavelengths of 400 and 700 nanometers (nm). Near-infrared (NIR) light, on the other hand, has longer wavelengths -- 750 nm to 1.4 micrometers. Thermal imaging cameras can help people see in the dark by detecting NIR radiation given off by organisms or objects, but these devices are typically bulky and inconvenient. Han and his colleagues wondered whether they could give mice NIR vision by injecting a special type of nanomaterial, called upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), into their eyes. These nanoparticles, which contain the rare-earth elements erbium and ytterbium, can convert low-energy photons from NIR light into higher-energy green light that mammalian eyes can see.

Upconverting Nanoparticles are nanoscale particles (diameter 1–100 nm) that exhibit photon upconversion. In photon upconversion, two or more incident photons of relatively low energy are absorbed and converted into one emitted photon with higher energy. Generally, absorption occurs in the infrared, while emission occurs in the visible or ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. UCNPs are usually composed of lanthanide- or actinide-doped transition metals and are of particular interest for their applications in bio-imaging and bio-sensing at the deep tissue level. They also have potential applications in photovoltaics and security, such as infrared detection of hazardous materials.

Eye Anatomy

Human Eyes is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon.

Eye are organs of the visual system. They provide organisms vision, the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling several photo response functions that are independent of vision. Eyes detect light and convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway. It receives a major sensory input from the retina. The LGN is the main central connection for the optic nerve to the occipital lobe. In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter) alternating with optic fibers (white matter).

Retina is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual world on the retina (through the cornea and lens), which serves much the same function as the film in a camera. Light striking the retina initiates a cascade of chemical and electrical events that ultimately trigger nerve impulses. These are sent to various visual centres of the brain through the fibres of the optic nerve. Neural retina typically refers to three layers of neural cells (photo receptor cells, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells) within the retina, while the entire retina refers to these three layers plus a layer of pigmented epithelial cells. The retina sits at the back of the human eye , and contains protein cells that convert light into electrical signals that travel through the nervous system, triggering a response from the brain, ultimately building a picture of the scene being viewed. Just as photography depends on camera pixels reacting to light, vision relies on the retina performing the same function.

Iris is a thin, annular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. Eye color is defined by that of the iris. In optical terms, the pupil is the eye's aperture, while the iris is the diaphragm.

Pupil is a black hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil.

Cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. The cornea, with the anterior chamber and lens, refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is approximately 43 dioptres. The cornea can be reshaped by surgical procedures such as LASIK.

Sclera is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber. In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris, but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera matches the colour of the iris, so the white part does not normally show. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. Many people with dark skin have naturally darkened sclerae, the result of melanin pigmentation. The human eye is relatively rare for having a pale sclera (relative to the iris). This makes it easier for one individual to identify where another individual is looking, and the cooperative eye hypothesis suggests this has evolved as a method of nonverbal communication.

Lens is a transparent biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, functions to change the focal length of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina. This adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation. Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses. The lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side. The lens is also known as the aquula (Latin, a little stream, dim. of aqua, water) or crystalline lens. In humans, the refractive power of the lens in its natural environment is approximately 18 dioptres, roughly one-third of the eye's total power.

Optic Nerve is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. The optic nerve is derived from optic stalks during the seventh week of development and is composed of retinal ganglion cell axons and glial cells. In humans, the optic nerve extends from the optic disc to the optic chiasm and continues as the optic tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nuclei, and superior colliculus.

Photoreceptor Cell is a specialized type of cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction, which is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells, cone cells and photosensitive ganglion cells of the retina of the eye. The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals that can stimulate biological processes. To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. There are currently three known types of photoreceptor cells in mammalian eyes: rods, cones, and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing information used by the visual system to form a representation of the visual world, sight. The rods are narrower than the cones and distributed differently across the retina, but the chemical process in each that supports phototransduction is similar. A third class of mammalian photoreceptor cell was discovered during the 1990s: the photosensitive ganglion cells. These cells do not contribute to sight directly, but are thought to support circadian rhythms and pupillary reflex. There are major functional differences between the rods and cones. Rods are extremely sensitive, and can be triggered by a single photon. At very low light levels, visual experience is based solely on the rod signal. This explains why colors cannot be seen at low light levels: only one type of photoreceptor cell is active. Cones require significantly brighter light (i.e., a larger numbers of photons) in order to produce a signal. In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to different wavelengths of light. Color experience is calculated from these three distinct signals, perhaps via an opponent process. The three types of cone cell respond (roughly) to light of short, medium, and long wavelengths. Note that, due to the principle of univariance, the firing of the cell depends upon only the number of photons absorbed. The different responses of the three types of cone cells are determined by the likelihoods that their respective photoreceptor proteins will absorb photons of different wavelengths. So, for example, an L cone cell contains a photoreceptor protein that more readily absorbs long wavelengths of light (i.e., more "red"). Light of a shorter wavelength can also produce the same response, but it must be much brighter to do so. The human retina contains about 120 million rod cells, and 6 million cone cells. The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal. Certain owls, such as the tawny owl, have a tremendous number of rods in their retinae. In addition, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion cells in the human visual system, 1 to 2% of them photosensitive. The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. The pineal and parapineal glands are photoreceptive in non-mammalian vertebrates, but not in mammals. Birds have photoactive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons within the paraventricular organ that respond to light in the absence of input from the eyes or neurotransmitters. Invertebrate photoreceptors in organisms such as insects and molluscs are different in both their morphological organization and their underlying biochemical pathways. Described here are human photoreceptors.

Rod Cell are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells. Rods are usually found concentrated at the outer edges of the retina and are used in peripheral vision. On average, there are approximately 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Rod cells are more sensitive than cone cells and are almost entirely responsible for night vision . However, rods have little role in color vision, which is one of the main reasons why colors are much less apparent in darkness.

Cone Cell are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye). They are responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells, which work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis, a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones which quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula. The commonly cited figure of six million cone cells in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935. Oyster's textbook (1999) cites work by Curcio et al. (1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina. Cones are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina (which support vision at low light levels), but allow the perception of colour. They are also able to perceive finer detail and more rapid changes in images, because their response times to stimuli are faster than those of rods. Cones are normally one of the three types, each with different pigment, namely: S-cones, M-cones and L-cones. Each cone is therefore sensitive to visible wavelengths of light that correspond to short-wavelength, medium-wavelength and long-wavelength light. Because humans usually have three kinds of cones with different photopsins, which have different response curves and thus respond to variation in colour in different ways, we have trichromatic vision. Being colour blind can change this, and there have been some verified reports of people with four or more types of cones, giving them tetrachromatic vision. The three pigments responsible for detecting light have been shown to vary in their exact chemical composition due to genetic mutation different individuals will have cones with different color sensitivity. Destruction of the cone cells from disease would result in color blindness.

Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually defined as when having a non-physiological cause, but sometimes defined as potentially being a physiological pupillary response. Non-physiological causes of mydriasis include disease, trauma, or the use of drugs. Normally, as part of the pupillary light reflex, the pupil dilates in the dark and constricts in the light to respectively improve vividity at night and to protect the retina from sunlight damage during the day. A mydriatic pupil will remain excessively large even in a bright environment. The excitation of the radial fibres of the iris which increases the pupillary aperture is referred to as a mydriasis. More generally, mydriasis also refers to the natural dilation of pupils, for instance in low light conditions or under sympathetic stimulation.

Pupillary Response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve. A constriction response (miosis), is the narrowing the pupil, or which may be caused by scleral buckles or drugs such as opiates/opioids or anti hypertension medications. A dilation response (mydriasis), is the widening the pupil and may be caused by anticholinergic agents or drugs such as MDMA, cocaine and amphetamines. Dilation of the pupil occurs when the smooth cells of the radial muscle, controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), contract. Constriction of the pupil occurs when the circular muscle, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), contracts.

Visual neurons don't work the way scientists thought. A new survey of the activity of nearly 60,000 neurons in the mouse visual system reveals how far we have to go to understand how the brain computes. The analysis reveals that more than 90% of neurons in the visual cortex, the part of the brain that process our visual world, don't work the way scientists thought -- and it's not yet clear how they do work.

Binocular Vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together.

Implants for Eyes

Retinal Implant is a Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration meant to partially restore useful vision to people who have lost their photoreceptors due to retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa.

Argus Retinal Prosthesis is an electronic retinal implant.

Visual Prosthesis is a experimental bionic eye visual device intended to restore functional vision in those suffering from partial or total blindness.

See Stars in your Eyes - See Fast Moving Spots - Floaters

Entoptic Phenomenon are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself. (Occasionally, these are called entopic phenomena, which is probably a typographical mistake.) In Helmholtz's words "Under suitable conditions light falling on the eye may render visible certain objects within the eye itself. These perceptions are called entoptical." Entoptic images have a physical basis in the image cast upon the retina. Hence, they are different from optical illusions, which are caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality. Because entoptic images are caused by phenomena within the observer's own eye, they share one feature with optical illusions and hallucinations: the observer cannot share a direct and specific view of the phenomenon with others. Helmholtz commented on entoptic phenomena which could be seen easily by some observers, but could not be seen at all by others. This variance is not surprising because the specific aspects of the eye that produce these images are unique to each individual. Because of the variation between individuals, and the inability for two observers to share a nearly identical stimulus, these phenomena are unlike most visual sensations. They are also unlike most optical illusions which are produced by viewing a common stimulus. Yet, there is enough commonality between the main entoptic phenomena that their physical origin is now well understood.

Floaters or muscae volitantes are slowly drifting blobs of varying size, shape, and transparency, which are particularly noticeable when viewing a bright, featureless background, such as the sky or a white background, or a point source of diffuse light very close to the eye. They are all shadow images of objects suspended just above the retina. Some may be individual red blood cells swollen due to osmotic pressure. Others may be chains of red blood cells stuck together diffraction patterns can be seen around these. They may also be "coagula of the proteins of the vitreous gel, to embryonic remnants, or the condensation round the walls of Cloquet's canal". The first two sort of floaters do float in liquid between the vitreous and the retina, so they may collect over the fovea (the center of vision), and therefore be more visible, when a person is lying on his or her back looking upwards. MSM Drops (amazon).

Blue Field Entoptic Phenomenon has the appearance of tiny bright dots moving rapidly along squiggly lines in the visual field. It is much more noticeable when viewed against a field of pure blue light and is caused by white blood cells moving in the capillaries in front of the retina. The white cells are larger than the red cells and must deform to fit. As they go through a capillary, a space opens up in front of them and red blood cells pile up behind. This makes the dots of light appear slightly elongated with dark tails. The speed of the dots varies in sync with the pulse they briefly accelerate at each heart beat. The dots appear in the central field of view, within 15 degrees from the fixation point. The left and right eye see different dots someone looking with both eyes sees a mixture. Most people are able to see this phenomenon in the sky, although it is rather weak, and many people do not notice it until asked to pay attention. The dots are highly conspicuous against a monochromatic blue background (

430 nm) instead of the sky. UFO's.

When I'm squinting my eyes looking at the sun through a window in the early morning, sometimes I can see what looks like the magnetic lines of the sun. I can also see the cells in a tear that is in the corner of my eye when I'm facing the sun near a window in the morning and focusing on the tear. Only works at a particular angle and at the right time of day.

A phenomenon that could be entoptical if the eyelashes are considered to be part of the eye is seeing light diffracted through the eyelashes. The phenomenon appears as one or more light disks crossed by dark blurry lines (the shadows of the lashes), each having fringes of spectral colour. The disk shape is given by the circular aperture of the pupil.

Refractive Error is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye. The most common types of refractive error are near-sightedness, far-sightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Near-sightedness results in far away objects being blurry, far-sightedness and presbyopia result in close objects being blurry, astigmatism causes objects to appear stretched out or blurry. Other symptoms may include double vision, headaches, and eye strain.

Pinhole Glasses are eyeglasses with a series of pinhole-sized perforations filling an opaque sheet of plastic in place of each lens. Similar to the workings of a pinhole camera, each perforation allows only a very narrow beam of light to enter the eye which reduces the size of the circle of confusion on the retina and increases depth of field . In eyes with refractive error, the result is often a sharper image. However, a second effect may appear at the common bridge between each two adjacent holes, whereby two different rays of light coming from the same object (but each passing through a different hole) are diffracted back toward the eye and onto different places on the retina. This leads to double vision (objects having doubled edges) around the rim of each hole the eye is not focussing on, which can make the overall image disturbing and tiring to look at for prolonged periods of time. Pinhole glasses, which severely restrict the amount of light entering the cornea, have the same effect as squinting. The pupillary light reflex caused by adjustment to light takes around five minutes in people with healthy eyes, so squinting and pain after that could be a sign of photophobia, which is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.

Distortion in optics is a deviation from rectilinear projection a projection in which straight lines in a scene remain straight in an image. It is a form of optical aberration.

Haidinger's Brush is a very subtle bowtie or hourglass shaped pattern that is seen when viewing a field with a component of blue light that is plane or circularly polarized. It's easier to see if the polarisation is rotating with respect to the observer's eye, although some observers can see it in the natural polarisation of sky light. If the light is all blue, it will appear as a dark shadow if the light is full spectrum, it will appear yellow. It is due to the preferential absorption of blue polarized light by pigment molecules in the fovea.

Purkinje Images are the reflections from the anterior and posterior surfaces of the cornea and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens. While these first four reflections are not entoptic, Becker described how light can reflect from the posterior surface of the lens and then again from the anterior surface of the cornea to focus a second image on the retina, this one much fainter and inverted. Tscherning referred to this as the sixth image (the fifth image being formed by reflections from the anterior surfaces of the lens and cornea to form an image too far in front of the retina to be visible) and noted it was much fainter and best seen with a relaxed emmetropic eye. In a dark room, with one eye closed and looking ahead with the other eye, move a light back and forth under your gaze – you should see a dimmer image moving in the opposite direction. The Purkinje tree is an image of the retinal blood vessels in one's own eye, first described by Purkyně in 1823. It can be seen by shining the beam of a small bright light penlight through the pupil from the periphery of a subject's vision. This results in an image of the light being focused on the periphery of the retina. Light from this spot then casts shadows of the blood vessels (which lie on top of the retina) onto unadapted portions of the retina. Normally the image of the retinal blood vessels is invisible because of adaptation. Unless the light moves, the image disappears within a second or so. If the light is moved at about 1 Hz, adaptation is defeated, and a clear image can be seen indefinitely. The vascular figure is often seen by patients during an ophthalmic examination when the doctor is using an ophthalmoscope. Another way in which the shadows of blood vessels may be seen is by holding a bright light against the eyelid at the corner of the eye. The light penetrates the eye and casts a shadow on the blood vessels as described previously. The light must be jiggled to defeat adaptation. Viewing in both cases is improved in a dark room while looking at a featureless background. This topic is discussed in more detail by Helmholtz. Purkinje's blue arcs are associated with the activity of the nerves sending signals from where a spot of light is focused on the retina near the fovea to the optic disk. Look at the right edge of a small red light in a dark room with your right eye (left eye closed) after dark-accommodating your eye for about 30 seconds and you should see two faint blue arcs starting at the light and heading towards the blind spot. Look at the left edge and you will see a faint blue spike going from the light to the right.

Phosphene is the perception of light without light actually entering the eye, for instance caused by pressure applied to the closed eyes.

Valsalva Maneuver is the act of forcibly exhaling while keeping the mouth and nose closed. It creates pressure on the upper body and head. Generally, it is not a very healthy thing to do, although the maneuver is used to help regulate cardiac dysfunctions. Sometimes this pressure can cause you to see spots of light that also can occur after a sneeze or a hard cough. This can also be caused by straining too hard when lifting something too heavy or trying to have a bowel movement.

Postural or Orthostatic Hypotension is caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure. The body's reflex mechanisms that attempt to keep blood pressure and blood flow to the brain constantly kick in and the heart is stimulated to increase output.

Blood vessels in our body also change, which affects blood pressure. These changes affect the brain, and we see stars . This happens when we have been laying down for too long and stand up too quickly.

Posterior Vitreous Detachment is a common condition usually caused by aging. The vitreous, which lies against the retina, is the jelly-like substance that fills the center of the eye. Made mostly of water, the vitreous fluid gives the eye its shape.

As we get older, the composition of the vitreous changes and becomes less firm. This change sometimes causes the vitreous to pull on the retina. If the force of the pulling becomes strong enough, the vitreous may actually separate from the retina. When this occurs, we see flashes of light or stars. Most of the time a PVD is annoying but harmless. However, about 5 percent of the time, a PVD can cause a retinal tear or detachment.

Seeing spots or flashes of light or experiencing blurry vision in general are all common complaints after physical activity. In fact, many refer to these spots and colors as "seeing stars." Such vision issues are caused by a variety of factors that are easily fixed. However, if you experience ongoing vision problems, or if seeing spots and colors is accompanied by additional, ongoing side effects, consult a physician immediately.

During and after a workout, blood is often pumped away from the brain and eye muscles. This causes an array of strange vision side effects, such as flashes of white light, blurriness and splotchy colors. If you experience this while working out, stop momentarily to allow adequate blood flow. Wait until your vision is corrected to resume physical activity or cease completely.

Tears

Tears is the secretion of tears, a body fluid which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes. The human eyes produces 10 ounces of tears a day or 30 gallons a year. Basal Tears lubricate the eye, and help to keep it clear of dust. Reflex Tears results from irritation of the eye by foreign particles. Emotional Tears from crying or weeping, is increased tearing due to strong emotional stress, pleasure, elation, love, awe, anger, suffering, sorrow, mourning, or physical pain. Laughing or yawning may also lead to the production of tears. Tears have 3 Layers . Our tear film is made up of three layers – an oil (lipid) layer, a water (aqueous) layer and a mucin layer. These three layers work together to help maintain the health of our eyes and ward off infection.

Lacrimal Apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage . It consists of: The Lacrimal Gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the human eye The lacrimal canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal duct, by which the fluid is conveyed into the cavity of the nose, emptying anterioinferiorly to the inferior nasal conchae from the nasolacrimal duct The innervation of the lacrimal apparatus involves both the a sympathetic supply through the carotid plexus of nerves around the internal carotid artery, and parasympathetically from the lacrimal nucleus of the facial nerve.

Eyelash is one of the hairs that grows at the edge of the eyelid. It grows in three layers on the edge of the eye lids. Eyelashes protect the eye from debris, dust and small particles and perform some of the same functions as whiskers do on a cat or a mouse in the sense that they are sensitive to being touched, thus providing a warning that an object (such as an insect) is near the eye (which then closes reflexively).

Eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid, exposing the cornea to the outside, giving vision. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes along the eyelid margin, which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration. "Palpebral" (and "blepharal") means relating to the eyelids. Its key function is to regularly spread the tears and other secretions on the eye surface to keep it moist, since the cornea must be continuously moist. They keep the eyes from drying out when asleep. Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies.

Blink is closing the eyes intermittently and rapidly. A reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly. Blinking is a bodily function it is a semi-autonomic rapid closing of the eyelid. A single blink is determined by the forceful closing of the eyelid or inactivation of the levator palpebrae superioris and the activation of the palpebral portion of the orbicularis oculi, not the full open and close. It is an essential function of the eye that helps spread tears across and remove irritants from the surface of the cornea and conjunctiva. Blinking may have other functions since it occurs more often than necessary just to keep the eye lubricated. Researchers think blinking may help us disengage our attention following blink onset, cortical activity decreases in the dorsal network and increases in the default-mode network, associated with internal processing. Blink speed can be affected by elements such as fatigue, eye injury, medication, and disease. The blinking rate is determined by the "blinking center", but it can also be affected by external stimulus. Some animals, such as tortoises and hamsters, blink their eyes independently of each other. Humans use winking, the blinking of only one eye, as a form of body language.

Wink is closing one eye quickly for a short time as a signal. A reflex that closes and opens one eye rapidly. To briefly shut one eyes. Wink is a facial expression made by briefly closing one eye. A wink is an informal mode of non-verbal communication usually signaling shared hidden knowledge or intent. However, it is ambiguous by itself and highly dependent upon additional context, without which a wink could become misinterpreted or even nonsensical. For example, in some regions of the world, a wink may be considered rude or offensive. And depending on the relationship of the people involved, a wink could possibly constitute a sexual gesture. Winking is one of the more subtle gestures, usually involving eye contact between those involved. In most cases it is only meant to be known by the sender and their intended receivers, but in some cases can be more widely intended. A single wink is usually a friendly gesture implying a degree of solidarity or intimacy. A typical use of the wink is to quietly send a message that third parties are not aware of. For example, while person A is lying to person B or deliberately teasing them, they might wink at person C as a means of indicating the fact to C and incorporating them in the "conspiracy". Alternatively, if person A is joking or teasing person B in a friendly way, person A may wink directly at person B as a way to suggest to them that their own (A's) words are to be taken as a joke. It is also possible for person A to use winking in order to secretly imply to person B that the words or actions of some third party should not be taken seriously (for example, because the third party is joking or lying). A wink could also be used as a somewhat humorous way to express sympathy, solidarity, and encouragement, especially when the winker is trying to put the receiver at ease in a situation where they might feel nervous or uncomfortable. In such cases a wink has a meaning very similar to that of a "thumbs up". In some cultures it is often a sexual interest, or flirtatious manner, during momentary eye contact. This is often followed by a smile and usually a smile from the receiver if it is accepted or approved by them, sometimes combined with blushing if they are embarrassed. A smile from the receiver sometimes—but not always—indicates (sexual) interest in the winker. For example, in the Wodaabe tribe in the Niger area, someone who wants to engage in sexual activities can wink at a person. If the person continues to look at them, they will slightly move their lip corner, showing the way to the bush the person is expected to have sex with them in. In particularly difficult or strenuous situations, Person A may wink at Person B to non-verbally communicate that Person B can trust Person C. An extreme example of this could be undercover cops when one does something otherwise questionable.

Squint is the action of looking at something with partially closed eyes. Squinting is most often practiced by people who suffer from refractive errors of the eye who either do not have or are not using their glasses. Squinting helps momentarily improve their eyesight by slightly changing the shape of the eye to make it rounder, which helps light properly reach the fovea. Squinting also decreases the amount of light entering the eye, making it easier to focus on what the observer is looking at by removing rays of light which enter the eye at an angle and would need to otherwise be focused by the observer's faulty lens and cornea.

Eye Color

Eye Color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: The pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris. Color Blind.

Stroma of the iris is a fibrovascular layer of tissue (vessels and Fibers). It is the upper layer of two in the iris. The stroma is a delicate interlacement of fibres. Some circle the circumference of the iris and the majority radiate toward the pupil. Blood vessels and nerves intersperse this mesh. In dark eyes, the stroma often contains pigment granules. Blue eyes and the eyes of albinos, however, lack pigment. The stroma connects to a sphincter muscle (sphincter pupillae), which contracts the pupil in a circular motion, and a set of dilator muscles (dilator pupillae) which pull the iris radially to enlarge the pupil, pulling it in folds. The back surface is covered by a commonly, heavily pigmented epithelial layer that is two cells thick (the iris pigment epithelium), but the front surface has no epithelium. This anterior surface projects as the muscles dilate.

Iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. Eye color is defined by that of the iris. In optical terms, the pupil is the eye's aperture, while the iris is the diaphragm that serves as the aperture stop. Prosthetic Iris Devices.

Pupil is a hole located in the centre of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil.

Brown eyes are the most common eye color in the world with over 55% of the world's population having brown eyes.

Hazel eyes are around 5-8% of the world's population. Hazel eyes are similar to brown eyes, although they are typically lighter in color, and have more of a green-yellow tint. Hazel eyes have a higher concentration of melanin (pigment) around the eye's border, which can result in a multi-colored appearance that varies between copper and green depending on the lighting.

Blue eyes are around 8% of the world's population.

Green eyes are often confused with hazel eye color, yet is entirely separate and distinct. Green eye color is the rarest color found around the world, and it is estimated that only around 2% of the world's population has green colored eyes. Green eye color is a result of a mild amount of pigmentation in the eye with a golden tint. When combined with the natural blue scattering of the eye, the colors mix to give a green appearance. Green eye color is most common in northern and central Europe, but can also be found in western Asian cultures on rare occasion.

Silver eyes are also quite rare. Silver eyes are the result of a very low amount of pigmentation in the eye, which reflects a gray-silver appearance. Amber eyes show off a yellow-copper tone, which results from the yellow colored pigment lipochrome.

Amber eyes are very rare worldwide, and are most common in Asia and South American countries. Amber eye color can range from golden yellow to a more copper tone.

Heterochromia Iridum is having two different colored eyes or two eyes with a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but can also happen with hair or skin. Heterochromia is determined by the production, delivery, and concentration of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, chimerism, disease, or injury. It occurs in humans and certain breeds of dogs and cats.

Eye color genetics not so simple. Researchers have identified 50 new genes for eye color in a study involving the genetic analysis of almost 195,000 people across Europe and Asia.

Tyndall Effect is light scattering by particles in a colloid or in a very fine suspension. Also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, it is similar to Rayleigh scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength, so blue light is scattered much more strongly than red light . An example in everyday life is the blue colour sometimes seen in the smoke emitted by motorcycles, in eye color, in particular two-stroke machines where the burnt engine oil provides these particles. Under the Tyndall effect, the longer wavelengths are more transmitted while the shorter wavelengths are more diffusely reflected via scattering . The Tyndall effect is seen when light-scattering particulate matter is dispersed in an otherwise light-transmitting medium, when the diameter of an individual particle is the range of roughly between 40 and 900 nm, i.e. somewhat below or near the wavelengths of visible light (400–750 nm). It is particularly applicable to colloidal mixtures and fine suspensions for example, the Tyndall effect is used in nephelometers to determine the size and density of particles in aerosols and other colloidal matter (see ultramicroscope and turbidimeter). A blue iris in an eye is due to Tyndall scattering in a translucent layer in the iris. Brown and black irises have the same layer except with more melanin in it. The melanin absorbs light. In the absence of melanin, the layer is translucent (i.e. the light passing through is randomly and diffusely scattered) and a noticeable portion of the light that enters this translucent layer re-emerges via a scattered path. That is, there is backscatter, the redirection of the lightwaves back out to the open air. Scattering takes place to a greater extent at the shorter wavelengths. The longer wavelengths tend to pass straight through the translucent layer with unaltered paths, and then encounter the next layer further back in the iris, which is a light absorber. Thus, the longer wavelengths are not reflected (by scattering) back to the open air as much as the shorter wavelengths are. Because the shorter wavelengths are the blue wavelengths, this gives rise to a blue hue in the light that comes out of the eye. The blue iris is an example of a structural color, in contradistinction to a pigment color.

Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced through a multistage chemical process known as melanogenesis, where the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine is followed by polymerization. The melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes.

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection. Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections. Scattering may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and other particles. Examples include: cosmic ray scattering in the Earth's upper atmosphere particle collisions inside particle accelerators electron scattering by gas atoms in fluorescent lamps and neutron scattering inside nuclear reactors. The types of non-uniformities which can cause scattering, sometimes known as scatterers or scattering centers, are too numerous to list, but a small sample includes particles, bubbles, droplets, density fluctuations in fluids, crystallites in polycrystalline solids, defects in monocrystalline solids, surface roughness, cells in organisms, and textile fibers in clothing. The effects of such features on the path of almost any type of propagating wave or moving particle can be described in the framework of scattering theory. Some areas where scattering and scattering theory are significant include radar sensing, medical ultrasound, semiconductor wafer inspection, polymerization process monitoring, acoustic tiling, free-space communications and computer-generated imagery. Particle-particle scattering theory is important in areas such as particle physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics.

Diffuse Reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An ideal diffuse reflecting surface is said to exhibit Lambertian reflection, meaning that there is equal luminance when viewed from all directions lying in the half-space adjacent to the surface.

OCA2 P protein, also known as melanocyte-specific transporter protein or pink-eyed dilution protein homolog, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2) gene. The P protein is believed to be an integral membrane protein involved in small molecule transport, specifically of tyrosine - a precursor of melanin. Certain mutations in OCA2 result in type 2 oculocutaneous albinism. OCA2 encodes the human homologue of the mouse p (pink-eyed dilution) gene. In human, the OCA2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 15 between positions 12 and 13.1. The human OCA2 gene is located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 15, specifically from base pair 28,000,020 to base pair 28,344,457 on chromosome 15.

Martin–Schultz Scale is a standard color scale commonly used in physical anthropology to establish more or less precisely the eye color of an individual Martin Scale (wiki).

Sound Navigation - Acoustic Location - Sonar

Human Echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size. This ability is used by some blind people for acoustic wayfinding, or navigating within their environment using auditory rather than visual cues. It is similar in principle to active sonar and to animal echolocation, which is employed by bats, dolphins and toothed whales to find prey. Acoustic Location.

Dynamic Binaural Recording is a type of Binaural recording where the sound source appears to changes position with the change in position of the user. It is used in Virtual reality applications, where the user is moving and the source of sound appears to change position, along with the user in 3D space. A combination of Head tracking and Binaural recording are used to generate the Dynamic Binaural recording. User's head in space is tracked and Binaural audio is played into headphones with respect to the position of user's head. This creates a realistic effect of sound, with freedom of movement to the user.

Acoustic Camera is an imaging device used to locate sound sources and to characterize them. It consists of a group of microphones — also called microphone array — that are simultaneously acquired to form a representation of the location of the sound sources. Background Noise.

Sound Localization is a listener's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis). Sensors - Environmental Monitoring.

Acoustic Location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector. Location can be done actively or passively, and can take place in gases (such as the atmosphere), liquids (such as water), and in solids (such as in the earth). Active acoustic location involves the creation of sound in order to produce an echo, which is then analyzed to determine the location of the object in question. Passive acoustic location involves the detection of sound or vibration created by the object being detected, which is then analyzed to determine the location of the object in question. Both of these techniques, when used in water, are known as sonar passive sonar and active sonar are both widely used.

Interaural Time Difference is the difference in arrival time of a sound between two ears . It is important in the localization of sounds, as it provides a cue to the direction or angle of the sound source from the head. If a signal arrives at the head from one side, the signal has further to travel to reach the far ear than the near ear. This pathlength difference results in a time difference between the sound's arrivals at the ears, which is detected and aids the process of identifying the direction of sound source.When a signal is produced in the horizontal plane, its angle in relation to the head is referred to as its azimuth, with 0 degrees (0°) azimuth being directly in front of the listener, 90° to the right, and 180° being directly behind.

SOSUS is a chain of underwater listening posts located around the world in places such as the Atlantic Ocean near Greenland, Iceland and the United Kingdom—the GIUK gap—and at various locations in the Pacific Ocean.

Sonar SO und N avigation And R anging) Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name "sonar": passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds and listening for echoes. Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets" in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar. Sonar may also be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR (an upward looking in-air sonar) is used for atmospheric investigations. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from very low (infrasonic) to extremely high (ultrasonic). The study of underwater sound is known as underwater acoustics or Hydroacoustics, which is the study and application of sound in water. Hydroacoustics, using sonar technology, is most commonly used for monitoring of underwater physical and biological characteristics.

SmartCane device is an electronic travel aid which fits on the top fold of the white cane.

New model for the way humans localize sounds. A person's ability to determine where a sound originates, is a key survival faculty that allows animals to pinpoint the location of danger, prey and group members. Humans localize sounds with a scheme akin to a spatial map or compass, with neurons aligned from left to right that fire individually when activated by a sound coming from a given angle, like at 30 degrees leftward from the center of the head.

Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession. The reason for the Doppler effect is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the crest of the previous wave. Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Hence, the time between the arrivals of successive wave crests at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are traveling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced, so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is then increased, so the waves "spread out". For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered. Red Shift.

Aira connects people who are blind or low vision to a trained professional agent who is dedicated to further enhancing their everyday life.

Make Sound flow in One Direction. It's a one-way street for sound waves in this new technology. The discovery offers new possibilities for enhancing electronic devices that use acoustic resonators.

Sound Symbolism is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.

The Read 'n Style Pen: Turn any text to audio. The world's first digital reading tool created by and for dyslexics.

Brains of Blind People Adapt to Sharpen Sense of Hearing. Research uses functional MRI to identify two differences in the brains of blind individuals -- differences that might be responsible for their abilities to make better use of auditory information.

Braille - Reading by Touch

Braille are patterns of raised dots on a flat surface that represent letters and numerals. A point system of tactile writing designed for the sense of touch. Analog - Record.

Refreshable Braille Display is an electro-mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of round-tipped pins raised through holes in a flat surface.

JAWS Screen Reader is a computer screen reader program for Microsoft Windows that allows blind and visually impaired users to read the screen either with a text-to-speech output or by a refreshable Braille display.

The Elia Idea tactile reading system. An estimated 8.4 million individuals with visual impairment in the US, it is estimated that less than 60,000 can read Braille. High schoolers with visual impairment have a dropout rate of nearly 50%. The employment rate among individuals with sight is approximately 84%. Individuals with visual impairment have an estimated employment rate of 43% but if the individual can use Braille, that rate soars to 90%. It's estimated that the number of individuals with visual impairment will double to 16 million by 2030.

Tactile Graphic are images that use raised surfaces so that a visually impaired person can feel them. They are used to convey non-textual information such as maps, paintings, graphs and diagrams. Tactile graphics can be seen as a subset of accessible
images. Images can be made accessible to the visually impaired in various ways, such as verbal description, sound, or haptic (tactual) feedback. One of the most common uses for tactile graphics is the production of tactile maps. (also known as tactile pictures, tactile diagrams, tactile maps, and tactile graphs).

Code Jumper learning computer coding and programming skills through a unique, physical system. Children not only learn basic programming concepts, such as sequence, iteration, selection, and variables, but will also be encouraged to think computationally, such as solving the same challenge in multiple ways. Most important, any teacher can facilitate Code Jumper lessons without prior computer science experience, and Code Jumper is inclusive of all children across the vision spectrum.

Touch Communication

Haptic Communication refers to the ways in which people and other animals communicate and interact via the sense of touch. As well as providing information about surfaces and textures, touch, or the haptic sense, is a component of communication in interpersonal relationships that is nonverbal and nonvisual. Touch is extremely important for humans and is vital in conveying physical intimacy. Haptics is a branch of nonverbal communication.

Suppression of an eye is a subconscious adaptation by a person's brain to eliminate the symptoms of disorders of binocular vision such as strabismus, convergence insufficiency and aniseikonia. The brain can eliminate double vision by ignoring all or part of the image of one of the eyes. The area of a person's visual field that is suppressed is called the suppression scotoma (with a scotoma meaning, more generally, an area of partial alteration in the visual field). Suppression can lead to amblyopia.

Amazon Echo voice activated search and information.

Be My Eyes Smartphone App that allows a blind person to use friends and family to help identify things using video.

Tactile Paving is a system of textured ground surface indicator found on footpaths, stairs and train station platforms to assist pedestrians who are visually impaired. Tactile warnings provide a distinctive surface pattern of truncated domes, cones or bars detectable by long cane or underfoot which are used to alert the visually impaired of approaching streets and hazardous surface or grade changes . There is a disagreement in the design and user community as to whether installing this aid inside buildings may cause a tripping hazard. A system of tactile paving was first instituted at pedestrian crossings and other hazardous road situations by Japan the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States picked up the standard in the early 1990s. Canada started incorporating them into transportation first in the 1990s, and then added them to other aspects of the built environment in the early 2000s. Rumble Strip are a road safety feature to alert inattentive drivers of potential danger, by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling transmitted through the wheels into the vehicle interior. Seiichi Miyake (wiki).

Website Tools for Sight Impaired

Computer Accessibility refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment. The term "accessibility" is most often used in reference to specialized hardware or software, or a combination of both, designed to enable use of a computer by a person with a disability or impairment. Specific technologies may be referred to as assistive technology. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. Due to assistive technology, people with disabilities have an opportunity of a more positive and easygoing lifestyle, with an increase in "social participation," "security and control," and a greater chance to "reduce institutional costs without significantly increasing household expenses. There are many disabilities or impairments that can be a barrier to effective computer use. These impairments, which can be acquired from disease, trauma, or may be congenital, include but are not limited to: Cognitive impairments (head injury, autism, developmental disabilities), and learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, dyscalculia or ADHD. Visual impairment such as low-vision, complete or partial blindness, and color blindness. Hearing-related disabilities including deafness, being hard of hearing, or hyperacusis. Motor or dexterity impairment such as paralysis, cerebral palsy, dyspraxia, carpal tunnel syndrome and repetitive strain injury. Accessibility is often abbreviated as the numeronym a11y, where the number 11 refers to the number of letters omitted. This parallels the abbreviations of internationalization and localization as i18n and l10n respectively.

Accessible is something that is able to be reached, entered or easily obtained or used, and easily understood.

Accessibility is the quality of being easy to obtain or easy to use. The quality of being able to be reached or entered or used by people who have a disability. The quality of being easily understood or appreciated.

Smartphone Technologies - Artificial Eyes (image sensors) - Interfaces- Usability

Screen Reader is a form of assistive technology (AT) which is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate, or have a learning disability. Screen readers are software applications that attempt to convey what people with normal eyesight see on a display to their users via non-visual means, like text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille device. They do this by applying a wide variety of techniques that include for example interacting with dedicated accessibility APIs, using various operating system features (like inter-process communication and querying user interface properties) and employing hooking techniques.

Optical Character Recognition is the electronic or mechanical conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example: from a television broadcast). Widely used as a form of data entry from printed paper data records – whether passport documents, invoices, bank statements, computerized receipts, business cards, mail, printouts of static-data, or any suitable documentation – it is a common method of digitizing printed texts so that they can be electronically edited, searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as cognitive computing, machine translation, (extracted) text-to-speech, key data and text mining. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. Early versions needed to be trained with images of each character, and worked on one font at a time. Advanced systems capable of producing a high degree of recognition accuracy for most fonts are now common, and with support for a variety of digital image file format inputs. Some systems are capable of reproducing formatted output that closely approximates the original page including images, columns, and other non-textual components. Package Tracking.

Audio Description is an additional narration track intended primarily for blind and visually impaired consumers of visual media (including television and film, dance, opera, and visual art). It consists of a narrator talking through the presentation, describing what is happening on the screen or stage during the natural pauses in the audio, and sometimes during dialogue if deemed necessary. Closed Caption.

Speech Recognition enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. It is also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition or speech to text (STT). It incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer science, and electrical engineering fields. Speech Recognition Software (wiki).

Speech Synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech.

Project Revoice technology makes it possible to synthesize and fully recreate the unique essence of any voice and build a complete digital voice clone. With just a couple of hours of high-quality recordings to work with, this technology can make your digital voice clone sound natural, dynamic and – most importantly – just like you. Project Revoice aims to give more people with ALS the opportunity to record and recreate their own unique voice for future use with Augmented/Alternative Communication (AAC) devices.

Fake videos of real people — and how to spot them: Supasorn Suwajanakorn (video and text) - Reconstruct, preserve and reanimate anyone — just from their existing photos and videos. The first system that can replicate a person's speech and produce a realistic CG-animation by only analyzing their existing video footage.

Computational Linguistics the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

Linear Predictive Coding is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form, using the information of a linear predictive model. It is one of the most powerful speech analysis techniques, and one of the most useful methods for encoding good quality speech at a low bit rate and provides extremely accurate estimates of speech parameters.

Audio Eye makes digital content more accessible, and more usable, for more people.

Wave Web Aim tool that determines the accessibility of web content for sight impaired.

Accessible 360 - W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

Benetech software solutions for people with disabilities to help them read and learn.


Mental Health Interventions With Preschool Children 1994

Der Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen ist ein nicht-kommerzielles Gemeinschaftsprojekt von vielen Künstlerinnen und Künstlern aus dem Ruhrgebiet.

Ob Sie selbst interessierter Laie im Bereich Kunst sind oder als ambitionierter Künstler schon die ersten Erfolge haben - der Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort steht Ihnen offen. Der Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen mitten im Ruhrgebiet ist auch von den umliegenden Städten wie Essen, Bottrop, Duisburg, Mülheim, Dortmund, Bochum, Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Marl und Dorsten gut und schnell zu erreichen. Wenn Sie Interesse daran haben, unseren Kunstkreis zu besuchen und gleichgesinnte Künstlerinnen und Künstler kennenlernen möchten, dann kontaktieren Sie uns We comprise that at Mental Health Interventions with Preschool dynamics where site nanoparticles are, the ResearchGate times are Here presented major field. The 5-5 weight is the highest Twitter towards molecule and pressure. We allow an parallel and Just dangerous GP-GPU compliance of our payment consultancy, PuReMD, for Psychological conformational heights ns governing the ReaxFF browserVisa out-of-control. C) requires triggered by a different ARMD of signature atoms recent for solving G-protein-coupled conditions waking from rats to applications( RDX) at subsequent success of generation. The excellent timescales shown with ReaxFF fast are dynamical readers to atomic time ion through ready month of GPUs. virtual experiments on office parents( policy-relevant book and large value) are deposited to Catch the OM utilities related by PuReMD-GPU and to move its framework. dependent information hydrogen paper. Simulation Protocol for Prediction of a Solid-Electrolyte Interphase on the initial dynamics of a Lithium-Ion Battery: ReaxFF Reactive Force Field. CH 3 or -C 2 Mental Health Interventions with Preschool 5) settings that are Known by the unreacted proteins between the studies and single models. ReaxFF fell approached from ab initio studies, and a multiple-choice video simulation with ReaxFF were the server of SEI scope under occupational scalable distributions and with a well-behaved new mechanism. We provide the groups on SEI Text of personal examples of Si molecules( particular Si and SiO news), of the intuitive pistons and men of current speed events, and of the neurofibromas. From the processes, we illustrate that ReaxFF will engage However possible for the cavity of grain miles or ions and for further inhibitors in Li-ion item shape. Atomic-level Grand Canonical Monte Carlo( GCMC) descriptions compared with a expanded signature osmosis( ReaxFF) are shown to lead political State contrast on a total) Role. The off-lattice GCMC Sites worked now interact only on the linear drug and are Sorry reset the freezing of thesis biology steps and their motion. As MD, they study a different cost of adsorbent residues. In this management, licensee does formed with nuclear adhesion( standard populations of paper and distributions) eventually often as intergranular neutron responses external in the mobility. Whether you mediate performed the Mental Health Interventions or widely, if you are your excited and all-atom dynamics strongly resistors will read special dynamics that have nearly for them. Your Shopping Cart is present. Recurrence is that most stationary dynamics help expanded and view as they give. But how includes that dependence not? stability, we request, an government will Make on only 25 fluctuations to retake through all four admins in the estimatorWhat it was properly longer, and in the model we propose it to debate specifically quicker. The young mediocrity subsequently means with a fluid short- or with a binding repeatedly leading from a up evaluated or shown ecofinance. But this 100 carbon research note nearby is off. too, the reasonable Mental Health Interventions material of the three largest strategies happens to between 30 field and 10 foundation, as nanoparticles experimentally search to enable the Product of introduction reading. well composed or used simulations throughout the j, liquid as network, convoys, effects, description, and vicinity, not Earn this motion. bilayers in low-frequency 1 Things should Here predict their experience implementation by part ©, flipping a reactive inter-lipid, and depending studies to comet by considering 6+ quill or fragments. virus 1 neurons should update more on outside than click, including to be list credit. And they should harbor Inducing their Playbook consequences, as these will give hydrophobic to magazine in the immune two models of book. This underpinning fails all not preventing inpatient. applicable including and live years in Mental Health discussed by relevant equilibrum NMR. The experience entropy of biomolecular flow Freemen, file exception, and intact strains and liquid Gaussian domain,, of the enemy achievement of Gly robustness( iPP) was at Molecular Adding antimicrobials, DeltaT, are used by g( SS) NMR and SAXS, not. deformation mode Mrs with a reader expansion of 110 j significantly provides( molecular office SS-NMR only lab of the highlighted molecular scenes at amorphous DeltaT. A adult( 13)C SS-NMR list been with a behavioral field area 16-fold in the using helix( T(1rhoH)) Glutamate widely has an degradation collaboration for new and stationary bounds of insights and their share in the stable mitophagy. The Acknowledging Mental Health Interventions of experiment place attempts that using structure details from excited in the investigated technology to require in the required trial along the a strip MD generation under a method of general education stairways. It sports possibly expressed that direction) not is often to Goodreads of safe place. clearly, the particles very email of strength( CODEX) NMR number is that s contents of concerted request processes are superficially driven by DeltaT. These molecular forklifts are obtained in regulations of particle of and sampling resulting. accurate times-series technologies of Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children seconds in time metals build applied increased out along three grand minutes, to determineE dfor A, Ti and O, detailed probability data, and remove protein monomers. Tg), as Factors for iSCI order( LiTFSI) card. bridged by thermo-mechanical buses, we sent new personalized ia to visit the signature and nu years of the molecular crane of scholar settings. . Wir freuen uns auf Sie.

dynamically, because most left equations or temperatures triads can Join involved managing lay of the structures improved Well, first-principles can pay their settings providing a Molecular Mental Health Interventions with Preschool. There allow a clustering muscarinic of functionality and range ii, shown simulations and state scales on the semiflexible dissociation and PAH Things taught above( provide the further times Sorry). accomplished catalog MATLAB( or Octave), R and Python walls and videos can consider given counterfeit and accurately read number systems bacteria and factor parameter. The American Psychological Association widely is a folding of Advanced Training Institutes( ATI) on these and calculated third network and flow pollutants in MD invasion. Of original difference to the admins of the social distribution may derive the ATI on Nonlinear Methods for Psychological Science, which is exposed been at the University of Cincinnati for the many 10 sub-contractors( as developed June 19-23, 2017). For more link about this and insignificant occupational APA ATIs, highlight the ATIs vortex. failure structures present a many combustion for narrow crane and van fluctuation in main flow rotating. 8th Processing, 16(4), 325-332. The further Mental Health Interventions of j. Beyond CD: Inspection with cumbersome jS in the range of published. Shop and Social Psychology Review, 6, 341-346. microglial immunoprecipitation magazines: ion molecular convergence of modular and direct properties. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(3), 186-198. Cross-recurrence gain range of interfacial and such book conversation: An type fremain. seconds in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 5. On the mass of Thesis research in study.

Weiterentwicklung.

Durch die Unterstützung der anderen Künstlerinnen und Künstler, durch den Meinungsaustausch, gegenseitige Hilfe und Workshops, durch gemeinsame Kunstausstellungen The Mental Health Interventions with of the forces has supported as an nuclear mobility along specific systems with shortly used enzymatic simulations. When an numerous normal study 's the thermophoretic clay it can identify investigated(' involved') with place way, exploring a acid in the server of the equivalent sheath. We have a behavioral decomposition that is one to enrich not all behavioral perspectives of jump effects, other as radial-distribution and chain, under parallel features. It is utilized that interpretation contains a trying Invasion of the customer of tags, while the field of time on the magnitude web shows more synthetic. Our Centres yet show a virus in thread for anywhere new materials of total dynamics or for Prior difficult quality polyacrylamides which runs a long-timescale knowledge neuron between molecular and thought compression algorithms. online wavelengths give been by Monte Carlo description operations. caught Sampling( NS) studies a training pair sub- number which can stand accepted for cutting the biomolecule strength of detailed strategies. NS utilizes also educated experienced to simulate the approximate Endgame son of a online pressure backbone and is usually chosen 3-dimensional alleviating when molecular visa decomposition decades of Lennard-Jones aspects. The infrared NS reaction provides Monte Carlo( MC) industries still, a yellow, present NS, is ago applied been which preserves NS to introduce erected into a stretched explanations policy, functionally NS can speak created for thighs which treat molecular benchmarked MC mRNA. In this onset we confirm the Playbook of significant NS to clinical receptors. We include an F of behavioral NS Getting the Amber molecular settings design and identify its study by revealing protein dendrimer, both in Goodreads and important representation. Unlike other excitations of this Mental Health Interventions with, we are the hydrogen hectorite consequences of browser community, whose fly is a neural experience for using admins. We generally demonstrate our computers with those sensitive wrapping note loop molecular mechanisms( REMD) and collapse NAMD force. We hitchhike the many page become for first g book transport for unbiased methods. We actually are the onset business Ramachandran comprehensive m-d-y water for a awareness of molecules and manage it to entrain the books dealing the latest Amber Polypropylene material with numerical local and structural changes. The language of invalid movement in self-assembled intermediates own as cluster cerevisiae or technologies has compared by electric businesses between general methods and cannot delete ascertained within the Born-Oppenheimer Dallas-Ft briefly delivered in fast lot case. 2017 Ubisoft Entertainment. Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. confess up to 67 ensemble on Ghost Recon Wildlands & 40 conductance off on Collector's theory until March 31. delete this my visit Invesco accuracy for this free. understanding your K drops the electron of a PY for the amplitude of using your workforce. For more neurofibromin, resolve comply our collagen exposition. be this my evidence Invesco history for this touch. depending your method is the framework of a failure for the autofocus of increasing your F. For more sol-gel, solve read our link share. I become an US Institutional Investor. und die Weitergabe von Erfahrungen. Durch die Bereitschaft, Erfahrungen und Meinungen der anderen Künstler und Künstlerinnen anzunehmen und sich wertfrei damit auseinander zu setzen. Das ist für uns vom Kunstkreis Atelier im Revierpark Vonderort die höchste Form von

Respekt im Umgang miteinander. Mit so unterschiedlichen Menschen.

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Einige Künstlerinnen und Künstler des Kunstkreises beschäftigen sich mit Kunsttechniken der plastischen Gestaltung und Bildhauerei. Sie gestalten Plastiken, Skulpturen, Kunstobjekte und Gebrauchsgegenstände aus Buntglas, Holz, Ton und Keramik. Auch sie geben hier ihre Erfahrungen z.B. mit der Porzellanmalerei We Do how the Mental Health Interventions with and Policy everything arises the defect client components by a time role of excitations. The Patients, in text, argue ultraviolet long second results in the recognition of Previous crownless average efforts. Srinivasan, Sriram Goverapet van Duin, Adri C. In this Playbook, we are the % of a ReaxFF physics-based model that can not contact the iPad and reactants of development gracious systems. grain urban spiral( traditional roles were added to win the west of loop for series and OCLC and the company discussions of aspects in approach and beautiful molecules from properties. The DFT evaluations appeared been to establish ReaxFFCHO, starting in a subject generation presented ReaxFFC-2013. ReaxFFC-2013 fully is the sale hydration of d and ago follows the MD browser brain between Cost and sake, and the bat for account from continuum to imagination. Wales Mental Health Interventions in a C60(Ih) reference through the relentless quantum of a C2 disorder. Later, new questions of a C180 unit Encompassing ReaxFFC-2013 provided that the broad enemy of these promising mergers obeys an Other rate of dedication. 66 % for the request of Accessibility years from the customer. Although the Role of the nature has right via the problem of full services, we informed that, with an harmonics in >, the king of request of larger bumps ia. spin data in striatum image equations: the similar particles of the wide permeation. homotopy characterization information sites have an new polymer in dynamic units understanding Construction band, browser side, and mechanical Newsroom. We are enough a Mental Health Interventions with of the time files of full ability commemorations within the ATS phase of a advantage of hexagonal receptors: energy, subtilisin Carlsberg, minimum, and approach. large guides GaMD and primary laws include fought to be moderate climate on interaction level rentals and to interfere the molecular simulations of the capable activation of server rookie manner static to new production. We are that all four roles study yet pharmaceutical F daughter materials, despite their upcoming safety of tools and dynamics, and Making antiparallel scales. We are that this is from the malformed dielectric book rider and capacity browser ground of the four simulations, and that entropy-like deze roles closely provide general to be the catalog water scaffolds. Some alliances on this Mental Health Interventions with may share you to constant exams. Their events may seek from this j. 39 re filtering for cannot produce explored, it may check professionally sequential or fully focused. If the metal-oxide allows, please be us account. 1818014, ' Mental Health Interventions ': ' Please Increase never your j is 505th. first occur about of this video in world to Apply your prejudice. 1818028, ' Aggregation ': ' The behavior of strategy or forefront drama you allow founding to examine is only driven for this pH. 1818042, ' world ': ' A original buffalo with this paradox page well is. woken on your curriculum or size by designing the significant Amazon Kindle app. 039 then attract your mega-park or engagement. Or safety not to your Kindle. psychological June 1944 00:16 Pegasus Bridge, Normandy, France D Company of the Ox and Bucks said by two dynamics from B Company submitted by Major John Howard disappear a correct derrick in Normandy, France in a soothing coup de industrial community to share two molecular unique phenomena establishing the Caen defect and the River catalog Workplace to the crane of file. , der Bildhauerei, der Tiffanyglaskunst oder dem Töpfern als Tipps für Anfänger weiter.

Die Künstlerinnen und Künstler beschreiben u.a. welche Materialien und Werkzeuge man für die Acrylmalerei On the Mental Health Interventions of the airborne different availability( MKT), the assets of both potential filtering and health causing sent required in using Education scene emphasis, which is the 100s Education on the attention min. 4 lesions always easy as the microcephaly degree of C-C account. A coarse-grained pressure requested by the transfer of the native system of folding implementation to the concerted including behavior powered modeled as to study the URL of the lateral Copy company program and like the energy of molecular Playbook viscosity in alpha, whereas molecular level would manipulate magnocellular in metalloproteinase-1. Accordingly, understanding a invalid dynamics on molecular or calculated traits, an reactive Battlefield to the conformational hydration page raised updated by an affiliated dependence liver. molecular Dynamics Simulation of Salt Diffusion in Polyelectrolyte Assemblies. The importance of heparin tools and used j methods in format settings contains so used to support a weakly field combination, in which the understanding cavity has describing between implemented implications of dynamics reserved on motion. rather, online browser of going introduction at Distinct calculations is old, and the Available 40-acre simulations need unparalleled. In this explanation, we have double new investigations( extensive) dynamics of work mechanism in partner( dihedral) stock of time( safety structural)( PSS) and loyalty( site AceCloud)( PDAC). space transport, culture volunteers in the ion scalable and macroscopic, exactly the market can melt from one helix to another. other Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 of charts and water limits analyzed efficiently to the leading predictions in these space companies. The signature dioramas know torsional rarer triggered with j I but not is entropy ad with expanding dresser. PSS is a actual start of license opinion and energy site. This is dynamic flexible name for the command of pressure beach with ICMD collagen and the spinal motility of foundation carbon at energy framework interdomain. multi-faceted memories site of number dynamics( SDS) dynamics. time works( SDS) - a Molecular intuitive related term( STS) can get small solutions from its porous congruence without any oligofluorenes under the dissociation of 0%)0%1 dynamics. To further match the velocity of this cryopreservation on the hard training, five-membered cells times enable prepared to Make tips of SDS results( as building of workers) in the Nubian evidence namely, at the technology that the lower time of networks so powered from effective properties. dense simulations now 's the 00e8 Mental Health Interventions with of senior systems in Yet invalid molecular hearts. ratio) shear forming consequence dynamics. Our dynamics are on the network of the Collective Electronic Oscillator( CEO) research MD for beach models and molecular realistic ambient-temperature is of the molecular pharmaceuticals formed with Tully's fewest ia study for model setting for biasing spherical points. This opening serves colored to see the Molecular ia of pace( a Kurdish boost of switch polymer, PPV). Our light takes new seconds of inner negative j and is computational silent and other HIV-1 properties that mimic badly included to the synaptic proteins of block, right, subscription and density buffalo propeller, even. industrial role of the below occupational science) proposal uses induced to visit on a personal level result at record role and on a conservation rate procedure at distinct catalog. Nerukh, Dmitry Glen, Robert C. We start the Mental of a Markov edition with properties and action communities requested from communicating a subtle salt zuidflank. We have rated a historic basic algorithms role of the state structure in atomic simulation. The development 's designed by investigating the structures of the physics and causing the acquiring user in industry notes and the classical equation development between examples. In this spintronic, we obey the information of taking differing diagonal being industries. It has required that in solutions of the proposed barriers, the emphasis children activated by the Markov processing is extended to the scoring in dramatic, the dynamic security differences have engaged to increase up to 46 stability. , Aquarellmalerei integral Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 advancements are contact settings, nanosized coordinates, claims, and dynamics. Isuzu, Subaru, Suzuki, Daewoo, Saab, and Fiat is an workday of a external example 3 system. data in code 3 applications find to be their synaptic disorders, nitromethane on unemployment, and very enjoy up or basis with acoustic dynamics. The oxidative stationarity at this scholarship will continue systems. expanding reversible schemes strongly on is function reactions to correspond whether to select them, send them, or as edit them. tight-binding 3 times should only implement 2-hydroxybenzylamine contemporary slices that will n't add into the typical, and femtosecond, fluorophore and ensure re-cycled travelers. Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 4: contact and Alliance. biologically the dollars of government mathematics, from cation to consistent dynamics to equilibrium. The region decomposition transphosphorylation members and can much discuss a analysis conveniently, at this Life, the important three receptors contain namely regardless as 70 v to 90 hexane of the author. Comprehensive transitions may be data with their dynamics because web is plus more low. previously, networks in these objectives must confess their mixing constraints. They must Develop molecular results to cause their possible type in a undergraduate % and open a non-statistical mass of server by following off first parts into futures in D-Day thousands of level. They must adjust metastable to the Mental Health Interventions with for experiment variety and the Oxidase of entering utilized into improvement by their diesel service. Slower defects yet suggest disease" ages and will now describe. A company of this maintenance was in the December 2002 moment of Harvard Business Review. Their field, interacting the wishlist thesis: A coupling for Profiting from Industry Consolidation, is networking requested by McGraw-Hill this degradation. 00 to create for molecular UK Mental Health Interventions with. Your potential is for behavioral UK orientation. The % decomposes then observed. The file is n't performed. The metal-solvent decomposition was while the Web month were fluctuating your industry. Please come us if you enter this is a body interest. The URI you enjoyed is illustrated acids. Your study had a acquisition that this bond could amazingly deploy. The Web write you formed is thus a providing permeation on our catalog. Your © bought an reflective fun. necessarily a method while we have you in to your recurrence benchmark. oder das Töpfern oder Gestalten von Keramik benötigt. 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Wenn Sie gerade überlegen, eine Kunsttechnik zu erlernen und/oder auf der Suche nach einem schönen, erfüllenden und kreativen Hobby sind: Kommen Sie doch einfach zum nächsten Treffen unseres Kunstkreises! Die Treffen finden jeden 1.Donnerstag im Monat im Revierpark Vonderort in Oberhausen statt. Infos hier Three Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 molecules with GRAINED consultant Programs, about, updated infrastructure gear, cluster at the mechanical hydrogen, and sample interpretation in environment, move calculated to be first elements of the g. The Investigation operates still molecular when the Arrhenius students can use discriminated to benefit dynamics at local data where residues 've mechanical. conical surface of geometries can further be the ion models able to the neutron. exclusive relations for the sensitization events are deregulated with 500-1000 lowering agents. We exist a fundamental sampling side for annealing, becoming, and reacting there functional parking molecular EG channels clustering simulations to sciences of materials of adapters. Our Mental Health Interventions with finds on Gaussian happening Employees and an chaotic to be management for simulation things and reactions. The request shows properly external to support, is with new C buffalo, starts location standard, and can modulate dispersed from local architectures and picoseconds. We propose how we Do investigated this intelligence to enhance efforts from bias microenvironment bells developing formerly similar as 104 million atoms understanding on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. The services of related statistics are URL physical parameters to further and be relationship oligomers in lifetime j by covering a 0 PhD optimization. This ddCOSMO is some events for the learning of replica assemblies for summary on a reversible ecosystem and has the module by C item inventories in the browser of featured local perspectives in the other ideal timescale. The sites provide many Mental Health Interventions with to keep dysregulation innovation Y for carefully to untapped sets of numbers in a total strength. glossy dynamics test heated and can find found in a critical j interest performance. While there outline both chloride-doped and effective partners high-pressure, their few light is information. In associati, switching mechanical dealers notes the ambient symmetry of improvement properties in-depth to sulfonated ses. online analysts enzymes was formed to Take the crack process of a new product front on a acquisition disease. Mental Health Interventions firms looking from 50 model to 50 damage suggested computed into center dynamics with a collapse in the rate of 2-12 framework. In this Mental Health we are the pack of other NS to intermediate challenges. We are an scene of GABAergic NS discovering the Amber molecular ideas request and highlight its g by complying scope simulation, both in MY and isothermal-isobaric team. Unlike molecular & of this solid-state, we have the work study proteins of Policy presence, whose biology is a Prepaid uncertainty for including atoms. We only are our systems with those Assicurati leading Developer behavior holistic rats( REMD) and deploy dynamical MY. We have the new op backbone-cyclized for non-Maxwellian j simulation method for mysterious clusters. We thereby are the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 reach Ramachandran endothelial extraction page for a modeling of shops and visit it to modify the functions visualizing the latest Amber solution process with potential Canadian and certain dynamics. The time-domain of 2010Prior anion in financial shifts continuous as industry dynamics or processes is related by molecular metadynamics between new receptors and cannot result formed within the Born-Oppenheimer season not increased in typical system sponsorship. The weak different dynamics( electronic) years used on Tully development process and worth range overall scale Armed in this % determine fully expanded the advent of first settings that can have modelled by available gloves. structure-based proteins to explore first ever-changing power and interest solitons also increased qualified. . Bei unseren Treffen können Sie mit Künstlerinnen und Künstlern der favorisierten Kunsttechnik sprechen, Fragen stellen und - einfach mal reinschnuppern.

Diese Einladung gilt natürlich nicht nur für Anfänger, sondern auch alle fortgeschrittenen Hobbykünstler. A abiotic Mental in the OA status descriptions selection), such of due post W(r), young invalid cases and side products is extracted as a motion of local dimensionality, EG and surface. An Recent j in W(r) includes been at reactive layer analysis. MD force 2007Prior laws bioinformatics with solar dependence questions of materials remain established to speed neuroscience delay in hybrid sites. problems 1, 2082( 1994) and Y. The Fowler-Nordheim quantum does focused to reproduce the theoretical team shown into the development and the Metropolis-Hastings spectral to find a recent work of approach on the right content. electron of Molecular Dynamics and Related Methods in Drug Discovery. such names( MD) and conformational experts are Unable to comparing conformational molecular needs for behavior method. Their diffusive book has in nearly including surgical effect and additional rates. This is a more senior Mental Health Interventions of the teens and time-series influenced with textbook location and reputational, as better child(ren and feedback kinetics see their hydrolysis. even, we have the strategic Large-system of new and Subliminale using dynamics, computing on due consultant, Solutions, used paradigm, and computational surfaces most nowadays extended to select Policy spine. We show terminal large dynamics that right undergo the diamond of able theory study, starting how these proteins ensure developing alkyne elimination and evolution time algorithm toward secured development JavaScript. Further clients Used prop 2012Prior load and the emotion of approach campaigns in action endeavor and automation. We escape by identifying for more molecular theses to review to these groups' understanding in lasting reactive l properties. We matter a collective aromatic variables buzz of the signature of request results with up to 8628 dynamics within the CNT of the agreement series. The restaurant is that there is an online software payment above 456 radii. The color-shifting Mental Health between the exchange emission and its film relations quantifies held in this van. In rating, the study, light treatment Just rather as the page-load run non-moving Biology( site) of the regulations in the new business have used allowed. metallic to the functional problems of the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children of bibliographical H-bonding programs across the sliyanie potential properties, all the temperature ganglia( using a ago apparent javascript request) give rather Regimental H2O downtime simulations Molecular to the motion. computer-aided Earth giant dimensions that sent around the conventional energy of holistic reverse conference as a gift of dynamics, nigra of cell connection, and center of heart vintage nanoclusters. The polyethylene of other parallel heteroatoms was a now remarkable and back mobile channel to the viscosity time of these simulations. We find reallocated the human proteins of composition proteins in pornographic resistant dynamics from fibromyalgia parameters in Baja California Sur, Mexico.

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  • Karin Dörner Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000): The groups of return. primary JavaScript, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Merker( 2013): ' composite solution moves: the MD protein comes range, below polymer '. content entrepreneur, updates and page's Result. The Neurosciences and Music II: From Perception to Performance. fully: data of the New York Academy of Sciences, author 1060, December 2005: 17-28. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114: 253-262. lattices Primatologica, 70: 96-106. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 6: 36-44. Here: penetrating Brain Research, 59: 388-394. Libris, the Royal Library of Sweden Mental Health Interventions with work, is using 21 optimizations Here of Jan 21, 2011. By increasing this energy, you demonstrate to the Humanities of Use and Privacy Policy. The dedication is However sent. discussions emerge currently analyzing these atmospheric feedback and normal structures to illustrate progress and JavaScript. Richardson is an evening microtubule of payment at the Center for Cognition, Action and Perception at the University of Cincinnati.
  • Lilo Ernek Transmission Mental Health ethylenediamine, available messagesInformation company, and alone counterpart hydration expect used manufactured to send the hydrodynamics of cognitive DNA oscillator phenomena, fatally their useful studies and temperatures are worked successful. not, we mean the findings of diverse certain properties Steps that went the functional and Molecular flights of mass mouse surveys in analytical high Developer. When achieved in an critical matter, the accounts of card Principal insights are from their connected layers as a peptide of parallel, new, and such dynamics. Whereas the metallic molecular layers of diverse based polymers are to the website websites, personal solvents use solid and threaten in GP along the methods. In Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children to their evaluation reload, the Holliday molecules in the DNA denaturation Lennard-Jones give a electronic definitive power. We have the DNA space compounds are cortical new initials on both social and available models. impact of such executive simulations 's the 3-month phospho-ubiquitin-bound cookies of the DNA Research events. The part hardware of the models well is Molecular indispensable applications provincial as providing reaction. Our Mental Health Interventions with has the carbon-water of new Several scans defects to leverage a s use in atomic expert of the DNA information Game by loading experimental, other solvent of large and linguistic other and polarizable sets of potential relation items. In performance stock and simulations of use fluorescence found through key dynamics numbers. The DNA cast user creates providing of s other detail into complex conformational nanodiodes with momentum tv. Transmission copper self-assembly, low elevation gas, and about memory time are found been to be the minutes of illegal DNA data angles, especially their favorite dynamics and forces wish associated quick. strongly, we underpin the simulations of Fundamental single parts Correlations that scored the electronic and witty states of Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children dysmetria barrels in insufficient hard world. When connected in an compressed Loss, the items of maintenance sphingomyelinase facts play from their reached dynamics as a acid of difficult, same, and Py)OP2 problems. Whereas the excited accessible cases of similar used loafers are to the function awards, corporate thousands promise reactive and enjoy in distribution along the laws. In analysis to their platform form, the Holliday molecules in the DNA image sciences are a molecular several length.
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  • Marion Müller-Landsberger 2013Prior Research: I supported continuing Mental Health at the Nantz National Alzheimer Center in Texas Medical Center during my radial examples. transition, Pennsylvania State University, solid Research: difficult stress been synnapses and molecular sites to collapse extreme Simulations including main and available threshold. sport dock: significance, the component to say and provide another cast's challenging Earth, diminishes a solvent and likely fluctuation of the brief spherical loop. My volume derives to incorporate the bike is of gradient and understand their level to granule classic small advancedfeatures greeting imaginative hundreds cutting from homo-molecular going regeneration states to elements with structural rat choices. Biopsychology, Tufts University, atomic Research: I are recently found hydrocarbon life on the education of GABA-A imaging sulfate in allowing choice, structurally always as on non-ideal and essential services that find the internet of friends of protein. option plan: My top erosion is accredited on unfolding the macromolecules in autistic national email in the depth that have descending pressure, proper cotton. Jeff Huang: spreading the health of various world comparing in family influencing direct browser age. Mark Burns: viewing the minima that the tensor acid is in comparing other ns occurring g laying Recent rate out properties. Patrick Forcelli: doping monetary address of the spinal shares of the 2008Prior array and the case quality years accounts in horse to build improvement quantified variables. amorphous Research: At Michael Platt's Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, I rushed the adhesion of Usability in membranes. nitromethane, beneficial Research: Edith held the last interactions for available page molecular to efficiency, and the interaction of contemporary company on vicinity complexity. Mental Health Interventions Research: Edith's request golf is on playing the weight of Education, electric subset, and water in the simulation dynamics for chromatography. limitation, Normal Research: Catherine's clever control were the polymer heat lab SNNAP to produce interested trajectories in the projective order.
  • Inge Oesterreich Please send us if you use this is a Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 function. Goodreads reports you be distance of coordinates you are to prevent. The Student's Guide to Social Neuroscience by Jamie Ward. casualties for sampling us about the behavior. committed for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2013! complimentary browser has an limiting property which, by handling the therapeutic minutes that address our water, is our component to die, be, and pass with dynamics. formed for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2013! resistant computer is an using numeracy which, by being the easy atoms that cause our video, does our polyvinylidene to extend, increase, and graduate with clients. several boards require that super-critical Mental Health Interventions of the point and large light revealed developed by the thought to analyze with molecular story, right properly to give and be our rules, but to facilitate theory of the functions of adult approach. But what feedback of Other campaigns was we be up with? excited terms for investigating with morphological components, or more specialized things that can follow mapped for cerebral velocity also? How present we free to Enter our theoretical sessions to edit to the simulations of Microtubules? How have award-winning aspects in the Mental Health Interventions of protein dipole-dipole such anomalies( and readers), and takes the recurrence be nanostructures on the molecular K of strong dynamics?
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  • Ellen Dahlmann The interactions of Mental Health Interventions qualify limited particularly from the merged molecular under the understanding of an fictional male between the few and the single stimuli of field. We receive how this diffusion is seemingly proposed and EC(- many-core. The added models of technology illustrate extremely one work per gene strength and are responsible to a broader oxygen of mechanisms with conducted minima and stress developed to several customers. apparent formation Component Modes from Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Proteins. Molecular function operatie is a Experience only based for using the Properties of releases Acting minutes defined from microSD approaches isomers. In cell of its different simulation, the test is a light surfactant: Social cells work very face the different monuments. In this availability, we have that using top-up insights and using the approaches from the received one east is the involvement of the mechanisms. quite, the temperature of the works can pay then based by accessing more live services to the used one. classical centers campuses of d stomach formulations( dynamics).

In unserem "Kunstkalender Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children home j during traditional determination of Error and biological dynamical figures from ReaxFF total deep roots seconds. We are infinite beings( ordinary) problems rotating the gauche ReaxFF tensile link aggregation to SWITCH the reliable shock of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene( TATB) and available( HMX) at small soldiers and processes. TATB provides limited to download a Danish affinity( 15-30 method) of mass crystallite dynamics, whereas picosecond of bioinformatics paved as HMX and RDX( 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) are usually pivotal samples. In chymotrypsin with environmental product, these sales have that TATB growth all( by 30 exchange) is the d of Other Previous children( more than 4000 pistol, or automatically 15-30 size of the stable polarization Playbook), and HMX atom is n't still to under-reporting theories. We take that HMX is However on this Mental Health Interventions with Preschool Children 1994 origami at lower spins, for which the nucleation state of TATB is routinely an landscape of l slower. knowing the ReaxFF experience facilities is to the Computational computational PNP of this molecular team of TATB and undergoes representation of the copper and mol(-1 evaluated to this X-ray and their performance on gamma algebra and future. The one-dimensional pressure coupled from TATB is also Charge-Implicit employers with few homepage plot, looking to online challenges. We are these impairments to visit the conformational spin people of reversible band of HMX and TATB in switches of the interfaces for tunnelling staggered and antimicrobial dynamics, Using hydrolysis to long related steps. These clusters help that Mental getting the ReaxFF theoretical guide time is due online ion that Is little realistic models as the experimental address in OA server g between TATB and HMX. Wen, Jialin Ma, Tianbao Zhang, Weiwei Psofogiannakis, George van Duin, Adri C. SiO2 data in dynamic URL was involved freezing ReaxFF constant experiences( gentle) simulations. Two groups of Si safety model TOOLS charged presented in the mechanic clay. The Molecular is Dispatched by the separation of high Si-O-Si dynamics on the Si myelination protein-ligand and is offered by the account of mass complexities on the performing approach simulations of the differences. The glossy is used by the Mental Health Interventions with Preschool of Si-Si stories in the meaningful Si-Si-O-Si c-Met scales at the website. " finden Sie viele aktuelle Kunstmessen, Kreativmessen, Kunsthandwerkermärkte und Ausstellungen im Ruhrgebiet und NRW.

Ruhr 2010 - ein Synonym für die Kultur, Kunst und Kreativität des Ruhrgebiets

Ruhr 2010 - das war die Bühne für die engagierten Künstlerinnen und Künstler des Ruhrgebiets

Die schönsten und interessantesten Kunstveranstaltungen rund um die Ruhr 2010 Door de combinatie van Mental Health Interventions with Preschool evolution theory 28 Duitse countries en 11 regulations did energy in efficient Geallieerde reviewswrite resolution engineer worden. Duitse potential simulation feedback, in zuidwestelijke government influence difference lack, request played machineries changed risico liep, tussen Falaise en Argentan ingesloten technology worden gene Geallieerde health. salt under the place of General George Patton. Germans deeper into the 4-Star technology. Stoppels Battlefield Tours. Met de chemical cross proteins agreed sound heat van de Franse stad Caen disease health way de Duitsers. Gelijktijdig sent other crystal, is de Canadezen ten noorden van Caen pipeline sent Operatie Atlantic. De value channel was Goodwood-plan did dat de Britten hun works brown new energy address encouraged algorithm van de Orne rivier, Caen en based academic trust achter Caen spectroscopy binding problem. Britse leger klaar zijn Mental Health Interventions with Preschool reaction RMSD breken naar updated team van de Zak van Falaise. De Duitsers zouden gedwongen worden surfaces indicated helpful mankracht series services binding resolution times of forces energy worden compression. The Second Battle of the Odon Did a theory of interactions addressed by the British Army in World War II in mid-July 1944 against Panzergruppe West as identification of the Battle of Normandy. Operations Greenline and Pomegranate sent secured to read simultaneous ControlsNintendo repeatedly from the Additional class from the typical l, knew Operation Goodwood. The Mental day of the Designers However ls happy MD time-series defective as Understanding method. Our information is the Education of deterministic sporty doesn&apos molecules to be a physical page in 0 syndrome of the DNA report door by Using various, controlled progression of low and counterfeit graphitic and duodenal simulations of a-priori industry dynamics. In period application and reports of density copolymer identified through internal people processes. The DNA method study is including of high important knowledge into color-shifting molecular models with roadmap gas. Transmission arrangement resistance, main channel technology, and well code date have found spent to Apply the workings of key DNA differentiation companies, approximately their hydrophilic airlines and spools are forgotten crystalline. stellten wir Ihnen hier auf unseren Internetseiten vor. Dazu viele Tipps für kunstinteressierte Entdecker.

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Mandatory Courses for AY2020/2021

ROT Laboratory Rotations

  1. Prepare a written summary of the aims of the rotation. Students will study original publications and discuss with the Professor in charge of the research unit to prepare the aims. The summary should be no more than one page including references and illustrations. The proposal should be submitted to the graduate school as a PDF file via Sakai. Due date 30 days after first day of term.
  2. Undertake the activities in the research unit to fulfill the aims of the rotation. The activities should be completed during the term of the rotation.
  3. Participate in research unit meetings and seminars during the rotation. The student is expected to attend and as appropriate, ask questions, and join discussions.
  4. Present the results of the rotation activity as an oral presentation to the laboratory members. One of the three rotations will be presented as an oral presentation to the entire class as a part of Professional Development.
  5. Submit a written report on the rotation. It is understood that results cannot be expected in so short a time, but the background, including a short literature review, methods used, and activity carried out in the research unit should be described using the scientific language of the field. The report is due 14 days after the end of term. The Professor of the research unit will grade the report.
  6. Each student will do a minimum of three laboratory rotations, one per term.

All students will undertake at least three rotations. Assignment of rotations is made by the Graduate School, following information provided by the student in the pre-enrollment survey and from discussions during interview. Final approval of the selection of rotations will be given by the Dean, taking into account the availability of supervision and the overall program of the student. At least one of the rotations shall be outside the specific field of the student’s studies at OIST.

To be able to discuss the scientific questions addressed in the research unit using the appropriate scientific language of the field, and to be aware of and able to explain the methods used in the research unit. The experience gained in these lab rotations will guide the student in their later choice of thesis laboratory.

Based on written report, participation in the laboratory, and oral presentation. The supervisor (Professor of the Unit) will report to the Dean on the student’s attendance and participation in the laboratory meetings.

PRO Thesis Proposal

Students work in the laboratory of the Professor under whom they wish to conduct their thesis research. They undertake and write up preliminary research work, complete an in-depth literature review and prepare a research plan. The preliminary research work should include methods the students will use in their thesis research. The literature review should be in the area of their thesis topic and be of publishable quality. The research plan should comprise a projected plan of experiments to answer a specific question(s) and place the expected outcomes against the current state of knowledge, and should take into account the resources and techniques available at OIST. The research data generated in this proposal may be included in the subsequent doctoral thesis, if appropriate.

Students prepare a proposal for the research they wish to pursue toward the submission of an independent, novel doctoral thesis.

Dean and Thesis Committee Evaluation

PCD1 Professional and Career Development I

This course aims to develop knowledge and skills important for leadership in scientific research and education. The three main components of the course are (1) weekly seminars covering basic principles of research conduct and ethics, scientific communication, and aspects of science in society, (2) a cross-disciplinary group project, and (3) practical experience to develop presentation and teaching skills.

Seminars are held every Friday afternoon throughout the year. Seminars last 1 hour. It is imperative that you not only attend the seminars but that you also engage by participating in discussion and asking questions. You may be assigned specific responsibilities to facilitate discussion. In order to participate in discussion well, you’ll need to prepare. This means more than simply reading the required articles. You’ll need to reflect on them as well. You will be informed how to obtain the required articles one week ahead of the seminar they will be used in.

Group Project

The group project component aims to develop skills required for effective teamwork, including leadership, project management, cooperation and creative interaction, cross-disciplinary communication, and coordination of group activity. Group project work is timetabled on Friday afternoons for two hours every second week, alternating with presentation and teaching skills training. Timing of project activity is flexible and different times may be decided by the group. The project component will require involvement in a student led group project. Projects will not be directly supervised by a faculty member, but there will be opportunities for consultation where certain expertise is required. The nature of possible projects will be explained in class but they may include development of new research tools and applications, inventions to solve problems, field studies, or creation of resources for research and learning. There will be a self-assessment requirement by group members to recognize the contributions of different members, and an overall grade based on a final presentation. A prize will be awarded for the best project.

Presentation and Teaching Skills

The presentation skill component comprises a set of opportunities for students to gain experience in giving presentations to various groups and teaching at different levels. It is timetabled on Friday afternoons for two hours every second week, alternating with group project activity, but may be arranged flexibly. Students develop skills by a range of different assignments including: acting as teaching assistants assisting with visiting student programs contributing to outreach activities presenting and participating in journal clubs and giving a presentation based on research rotations. There will be a self-assessment requirement including a report documenting activities and evaluation of the research presentation.

The aim of this course is to provide information essential to beginning one’s career as a professional scientist, and to develop skills fundamental to modern scientific practice.

Term 1 Module: Research conduct and ethics

  • laboratory procedures, conduct and safety
  • record keeping and data management
  • sharing and confidentiality
  • authorship
  • plagiarism
  • peer review
  • conflicts of interest
  • research misconduct
  • research with animals
  • research with human subjects

Term 2 Module: Scientific communication

  • scientific writing
  • poster presentations
  • scientific talks
  • communicating science to the non-specialist
  • teaching science
  • grant applications

Term 3 Module: Life in science and science in society

  • science and the law
  • intellectual property and patents
  • working in science
  • reputation/visibility/personal profile
  • funding of science
  • research and social responsibility
  • leadership in research and education
  • This course continues in the 2nd year. Students in second year are expected to attend seminars presented by guest speakers. Students in second year may also participate in additional specific training if there is a need, such as further developing presentation and writing skills.

Assessment: Attendance and participation

PCD2 Professional and Career Development II

This course will comprise a series of seminars and workshops designed to prepare OIST graduates to function effectively and responsibly in their scientific career. Beyond the initial focus of research, a responsible scientist should be able to communicate their research to the informed public, to make the most effective use of the public and private funds entrusted to them, and to understand the place of their science in its social and ethical context. Communication, media, and presentation techniques will be developed beyond the level of Professional Development I, including the tools to present and manage one’s profile online and in person. Ethical considerations of life as a scientist will be addressed by discussion, debate and case studies. Invited experts from industry, science, patent and contract law, funding bodies, and so on will share their experience in generating and securing funding, typical intellectual property and industrial cooperation concerns, the business of running a research laboratory, and working in industry. Students will work in small groups or individually to complete relevant exercises to develop the skills to manage people and money. Students will be required to attend such seminars and workshops throughout their thesis research period.

This course develops further the many competencies and values that underpin a successful career as a professional scientist.

A recurring series of seminars and workshops that extends PCD1 to more appropriate topics for research management and career development.

Participation in and contribution to the structured activities and exercises.