Information

How are Raven's Matrices scores converted into age-adjusted IQ?

How are Raven's Matrices scores converted into age-adjusted IQ?

There are IQ tests based only on Raven's matrices. I wonder how a raw score on such a test is "scaled" to an IQ result. As we all know, IQ results depend on the age of individual tested. So I was looking for any data about IQ results and standard deviations in different age groups and I didn't find anything except truisms. But there must be a table with multipliers for every age group, by which a raw test score is multiplied to evaluate the IQ result.

  • How are raw Raven's scores converted into age-adjusted IQ?
  • Where can one find age norms for Raven's?

Raven (2000) provides norms for Raven matrices for different age groups.

Here is how you interpret it.

Burke (1985) provide different groups norms.

You can use different scales like IQ (which is very old term used in Piaget. DeVries (below) has more about it). Also there are other measures: percentiles, DQI, Z scores, etc… you have formulas to recalculate, but usually you have to have norms on different age groups.

Usually it is hard to interpret if you don't have some background in psychometry, but good luck.

References

  • Burke, H. R. (1985). Raven's Progressive Matrices (1938): More on norms, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(2), 231-235. ERIC Number: EJ316493 DOI: 10.1002/1097-4679(198503)41:2<231::AID-JCLP2270410216>3.0.CO;2-Z

  • DeVries, R. (1974). Relationships among Piagetian, IQ, and achievement assessments. Child Development, 746-756. ERIC Number: ED088593 PDF⇰

  • Raven, J. (2000). The Raven's progressive matrices: change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 1-48. ERIC Number: EJ615887 DOI: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0735 PDF⇰


Raven's Progressive Matrices

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.[1] It is the most common and popular test administered to groups ranging from 5-year-olds to the elderly.[2] It is made of 60 multiple choice questions, listed in order of difficulty.[2] This format is designed to measure the test taker's reasoning ability, the eductive ("meaning-making") component of Spearman's g (g is often referred to as general intelligence). The tests were originally developed by John C. Raven in 1936.[3] In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing element that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name.

Problem structure

All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.[4]

Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary tests were originally developed for use in research into the genetic and environmental origins of cognitive ability. Raven thought that the tests commonly in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results difficult to interpret. Accordingly, he set about developing simple measures of the two main components of Spearman's g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity (known as eductive ability) and the ability to store and reproduce information (known as reproductive ability).

Raven's tests of both were developed with the aid of what later became known as item response theory.

Raven first published his Progressive Matrices in the United Kingdom in 1938. His three sons established Scotland-based test publisher J C Raven Ltd. in 1972. In 2004, Harcourt Assessment, Inc. a division of Harcourt Education acquired J C Raven Ltd. Harcourt was later acquired by Pearson PLC.

The Matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different ability:

  • Standard Progressive Matrices: These were the original form of the matrices, first published in 1938. The booklet comprises five sets (A to E) of 12 items each (e.g., A1 through A12), with items within a set becoming increasingly difficult, requiring ever greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze information. All items are presented in black ink on a white background.[4]
  • Colored Progressive Matrices: Designed for children aged 5 through 11 years-of-age, the elderly, and mentally and physically impaired individuals. This test contains sets A and B from the standard matrices, with a further set of 12 items inserted between the two, as set Ab. Most items are presented on a coloured background to make the test visually stimulating for participants. However the very last few items in set B are presented as black-on-white in this way, if a subject exceeds the tester's expectations, transition to sets C, D, and E of the standard matrices is eased.[4]
  • Advanced Progressive Matrices: The advanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as one set of 12 (set I), and another of 36 (set II). Items are again presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above-average intelligence.[4]

In addition, "parallel" forms of the standard and coloured progressive matrices were published in 1998. This was to address the problem of the Raven's Matrices being too well known in the general population. Items in the parallel tests have been constructed so that average solution rates to each question are identical for the classic and parallel versions. A revised version of the SPM &ndash the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus &ndash was published at the same time. This was based on the "parallel" version but, although the test was the same length, it had more difficult items in order to restore the discrimination that the original SPM had among more able adolescents and young adults when it was first published. This new test, developed with the aid of better sampling arrangements and developments in the procedures available to implement the item response theory, has turned out to have exemplary test properties.

The tests were developed for research purposes. Because of their independence of language and reading and writing skills, and the simplicity of their use and interpretation, they quickly found widespread practical application. For example, all entrants to the British armed forces from 1942 onwards took a twenty-minute version of the SPM, and potential officers took a specially adapted version as part of British War Office Selection Boards. The routine administration of what became the Standard Progressive Matrices to all entrants (conscripts) to many military services throughout the world (including the Soviet Union) continued at least until the present century. It was by bringing together these data that James R. Flynn was able to place the intergenerational increase in scores beyond reasonable doubt.[5] Flynn's path-breaking publications on IQ gains around the world have led to the phenomenon of the gains being known as the Flynn effect. Among Robert L. Thorndike[6] and other researchers who preceded Flynn in finding evidence of IQ score gains was John Raven,[7] reporting on studies with the RPM.

A 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with Asperger syndrome, a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher than other individuals on Raven's tests.[8] Another 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with classic autism, a low-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher in Raven's tests than in Wechsler tests. In addition, the individuals with classic autism were providing correct answers to the Raven's test in less time than individuals without autism, although erring as often.[9][10]

The Triple Nine Society, a high IQ society, used to accept the Advanced Progressive Matrices as one of their admission tests. They required a score of at least 35 out of 36 on or before June 2017 on the RAPM.[11] The International Society for Philosophical Enquiry (ISPE) accepts the RAPM as a qualification for admission,[12] and so does the International High IQ Society.[13]

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Raven's Progressive Matrices".


Just released - IQ Test - What is your wisdom?

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. Results are adjusted according to the age group.
There are many tests of intelligence.

The application is based on the Raven test.

The Raven test includes sixty questions. The application has three options - a full test consisting of 60 questions, a moderate test with 30 questions and a quick test, which is shortened to 15 questions.

The test time is limited to 40 minutes for the full test, 20 minutes for the intermediate test and 10 minutes for the short test.
The results of the test - the IQ distribution usually produces a bell graph similar to a normal distribution.
The average IQ is 100. The highest score is 175 and the lowest is 25.

Only the results of the full test are reliable. Short-term tests were created for people who do not want to spend 40 minutes and yet to be tested. At these points, it is important to take into account that the grade received is inaccurate and unreliable.

Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales were developed for use in fundamental research into the genetic and environmental determinants of ‘‘intelligence.’’
The Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) tests (of which there are several versions) are made up of a series of diagrams or designs with a part missing.
Those taking the tests are expected to select the correct part to complete the designs from a number of options printed beneath.
Most of the tests in this app was conducted with the Standard Progressive Matrices Test.

It is important to note that the SPM was, from the start, known to have both certain strengths and limitations.
Its strengths were that it could be used with respondents of all ages from early childhood to old age and was of such a length that it could reasonably be administered in homes, schools, and workplaces.
Scores are converted into age adjusted IQ according to Raven's Matrices.


Raven's Progressive Matrices

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.[1] It is the most common and popular test administered to groups ranging from 5-year-olds to the elderly.[2] It is made of 60 multiple choice questions, listed in order of difficulty.[2] This format is designed to measure the test taker's reasoning ability, the eductive ("meaning-making") component of Spearman's g (g is often referred to as general intelligence). The tests were originally developed by John C. Raven in 1936.[3] In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing element that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name.

Problem structure

All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.[4]

Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary tests were originally developed for use in research into the genetic and environmental origins of cognitive ability. Raven thought that the tests commonly in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results difficult to interpret. Accordingly, he set about developing simple measures of the two main components of Spearman's g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity (known as eductive ability) and the ability to store and reproduce information (known as reproductive ability).

Raven's tests of both were developed with the aid of what later became known as item response theory.

Raven first published his Progressive Matrices in the United Kingdom in 1938. His three sons established Scotland-based test publisher J C Raven Ltd. in 1972. In 2004, Harcourt Assessment, Inc. a division of Harcourt Education acquired J C Raven Ltd. Harcourt was later acquired by Pearson PLC.

The Matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different ability:

  • Standard Progressive Matrices: These were the original form of the matrices, first published in 1938. The booklet comprises five sets (A to E) of 12 items each (e.g., A1 through A12), with items within a set becoming increasingly difficult, requiring ever greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze information. All items are presented in black ink on a white background.[4]
  • Colored Progressive Matrices: Designed for children aged 5 through 11 years-of-age, the elderly, and mentally and physically impaired individuals. This test contains sets A and B from the standard matrices, with a further set of 12 items inserted between the two, as set Ab. Most items are presented on a coloured background to make the test visually stimulating for participants. However the very last few items in set B are presented as black-on-white in this way, if a subject exceeds the tester's expectations, transition to sets C, D, and E of the standard matrices is eased.[4]
  • Advanced Progressive Matrices: The advanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as one set of 12 (set I), and another of 36 (set II). Items are again presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above-average intelligence.[4]

In addition, "parallel" forms of the standard and coloured progressive matrices were published in 1998. This was to address the problem of the Raven's Matrices being too well known in the general population. Items in the parallel tests have been constructed so that average solution rates to each question are identical for the classic and parallel versions. A revised version of the SPM &ndash the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus &ndash was published at the same time. This was based on the "parallel" version but, although the test was the same length, it had more difficult items in order to restore the discrimination that the original SPM had among more able adolescents and young adults when it was first published. This new test, developed with the aid of better sampling arrangements and developments in the procedures available to implement the item response theory, has turned out to have exemplary test properties.

The tests were developed for research purposes. Because of their independence of language and reading and writing skills, and the simplicity of their use and interpretation, they quickly found widespread practical application. For example, all entrants to the British armed forces from 1942 onwards took a twenty-minute version of the SPM, and potential officers took a specially adapted version as part of British War Office Selection Boards. The routine administration of what became the Standard Progressive Matrices to all entrants (conscripts) to many military services throughout the world (including the Soviet Union) continued at least until the present century. It was by bringing together these data that James R. Flynn was able to place the intergenerational increase in scores beyond reasonable doubt.[5] Flynn's path-breaking publications on IQ gains around the world have led to the phenomenon of the gains being known as the Flynn effect. Among Robert L. Thorndike[6] and other researchers who preceded Flynn in finding evidence of IQ score gains was John Raven,[7] reporting on studies with the RPM.

A 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with Asperger syndrome, a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher than other individuals on Raven's tests.[8] Another 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with classic autism, a low-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher in Raven's tests than in Wechsler tests. In addition, the individuals with classic autism were providing correct answers to the Raven's test in less time than individuals without autism, although erring as often.[9][10]

The Triple Nine Society, a high IQ society, used to accept the Advanced Progressive Matrices as one of their admission tests. They required a score of at least 35 out of 36 on or before June 2017 on the RAPM.[11] The International Society for Philosophical Enquiry (ISPE) accepts the RAPM as a qualification for admission,[12] and so does the International High IQ Society.[13]

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Raven's Progressive Matrices".


Raven's Progressive Matrices

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.[1] It is the most common and popular test administered to groups ranging from 5-year-olds to the elderly.[2] It is made of 60 multiple choice questions, listed in order of difficulty.[2] This format is designed to measure the test taker's reasoning ability, the eductive ("meaning-making") component of Spearman's g (g is often referred to as general intelligence). The tests were originally developed by John C. Raven in 1936.[3] In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing element that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name.

Problem structure

All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.[4]

Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary tests were originally developed for use in research into the genetic and environmental origins of cognitive ability. Raven thought that the tests commonly in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results difficult to interpret. Accordingly, he set about developing simple measures of the two main components of Spearman's g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity (known as eductive ability) and the ability to store and reproduce information (known as reproductive ability).

Raven's tests of both were developed with the aid of what later became known as item response theory.

Raven first published his Progressive Matrices in the United Kingdom in 1938. His three sons established Scotland-based test publisher J C Raven Ltd. in 1972. In 2004, Harcourt Assessment, Inc. a division of Harcourt Education acquired J C Raven Ltd. Harcourt was later acquired by Pearson PLC.

The Matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different ability:

  • Standard Progressive Matrices: These were the original form of the matrices, first published in 1938. The booklet comprises five sets (A to E) of 12 items each (e.g., A1 through A12), with items within a set becoming increasingly difficult, requiring ever greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze information. All items are presented in black ink on a white background.[4]
  • Colored Progressive Matrices: Designed for children aged 5 through 11 years-of-age, the elderly, and mentally and physically impaired individuals. This test contains sets A and B from the standard matrices, with a further set of 12 items inserted between the two, as set Ab. Most items are presented on a coloured background to make the test visually stimulating for participants. However the very last few items in set B are presented as black-on-white in this way, if a subject exceeds the tester's expectations, transition to sets C, D, and E of the standard matrices is eased.[4]
  • Advanced Progressive Matrices: The advanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as one set of 12 (set I), and another of 36 (set II). Items are again presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above-average intelligence.[4]

In addition, "parallel" forms of the standard and coloured progressive matrices were published in 1998. This was to address the problem of the Raven's Matrices being too well known in the general population. Items in the parallel tests have been constructed so that average solution rates to each question are identical for the classic and parallel versions. A revised version of the SPM &ndash the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus &ndash was published at the same time. This was based on the "parallel" version but, although the test was the same length, it had more difficult items in order to restore the discrimination that the original SPM had among more able adolescents and young adults when it was first published. This new test, developed with the aid of better sampling arrangements and developments in the procedures available to implement the item response theory, has turned out to have exemplary test properties.

The tests were developed for research purposes. Because of their independence of language and reading and writing skills, and the simplicity of their use and interpretation, they quickly found widespread practical application. For example, all entrants to the British armed forces from 1942 onwards took a twenty-minute version of the SPM, and potential officers took a specially adapted version as part of British War Office Selection Boards. The routine administration of what became the Standard Progressive Matrices to all entrants (conscripts) to many military services throughout the world (including the Soviet Union) continued at least until the present century. It was by bringing together these data that James R. Flynn was able to place the intergenerational increase in scores beyond reasonable doubt.[5] Flynn's path-breaking publications on IQ gains around the world have led to the phenomenon of the gains being known as the Flynn effect. Among Robert L. Thorndike[6] and other researchers who preceded Flynn in finding evidence of IQ score gains was John Raven,[7] reporting on studies with the RPM.

A 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with Asperger syndrome, a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher than other individuals on Raven's tests.[8] Another 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with classic autism, a low-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher in Raven's tests than in Wechsler tests. In addition, the individuals with classic autism were providing correct answers to the Raven's test in less time than individuals without autism, although erring as often.[9][10]

The Triple Nine Society, a high IQ society, used to accept the Advanced Progressive Matrices as one of their admission tests. They required a score of at least 35 out of 36 on or before June 2017 on the RAPM.[11] The International Society for Philosophical Enquiry (ISPE) accepts the RAPM as a qualification for admission,[12] and so does the International High IQ Society.[13]

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Raven's Progressive Matrices".


22 Sep 2017 App Of The Day

IQ is a total score derived from tests designed to assess human intelligence.

IQ tests have been in use right since the 19th century for measuring intelligence of individuals. This standardized test has been used across the years by educators and psychologists to foretell a person&rsquos academic performance and career success, and also to diagnose mental retardation and disabilities in learning. IQ test remains the most commonly used test for judging mental ability.

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. Results are adjusted according to the age group.

There are many tests of intelligence.
The application is based on the Raven IQ test.

The Raven IQ test includes sixty questions. The application has three options - a full intelligence test consisting of 60 questions, a moderate IQ test with 30 questions and a quick test, which is shortened to 15 questions.

The Raven test has been the norm in Great Britain for decades.

We provide a free IQ test for everybody and it is suitable for any age, for kids under 15 the free IQ test uses Raven's correction matrices in order to adjust the IQ score and represent reliable results.

The test time is limited to 40 minutes for the full test, 20 minutes for the intermediate test and 10 minutes for the short test.
The results of the test - the IQ distribution usually produces a bell graph similar to a normal distribution.
The average IQ is 100. The highest score is 175 and the lowest is 25.

The result score is described verbally, rather than displayed on an IQ graph, which is intended to amuse the users more than graphics results.

Only the results of the full test are reliable. Short-term tests were created for people who do not want to spend 40 minutes and yet to be tested. At these points, it is important to take into account that the grade received is inaccurate and unreliable.

Raven&rsquos Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales were developed for use in fundamental research into the genetic and environmental determinants of &lsquo&lsquointelligence.&rsquo&rsquo
The Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) intelligence tests (of which there are several versions) are made up of a series of diagrams or designs with a part missing.
Those taking the tests are expected to select the correct part to complete the designs from a number of options printed beneath.
Most of the tests in this app was conducted with the Standard Progressive Matrices Test.

It is important to note that the SPM was, from the start, known to have both certain strengths and limitations.
Its strengths were that it could be used with respondents of all ages from early childhood to old age and was of such a length that it could reasonably be administered in homes, schools, and workplaces.
Scores are converted into age adjusted IQ according to Raven's Matrices.

Option to make selfie and entering your name before sharing results with friends.


Measurements of Intelligence in sub-Saharan Africa: Perspectives Gathered from Research in Mali

One of the most controversial debates around intelligence testing regards how tests are used to measure intelligence among non-Western populations. Studies conducted since the 1930’s consistently indicate significant sub-average intelligence among African populations. The purpose of this study is to examine whether commonly used intelligence tests such as the Ravens Progressive Matrices are valid indices of cognitive functioning among children in Mali, Africa. Participants in the current study were 206 children from Mali attending French-language schools. The Woodcock-Johnson II math assessment was used to measure participants’ academic achievement. The Vineland II- Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was used to indicate their adaptive functioning level. In this study, tests of IQ were compared against adaptive functioning and academic achievement, to examine whether IQ scores measured among African populations are artificially low or are an accurate measure of performance. IQ scores as measured by the Ravens were discrepant with standardized scores on math achievement and adaptive functioning. Results indicate that use of the Ravens may substantially underestimate the intelligence of children in Mali. This can be particularly problematic when comparisons are made across cultures using the same test and norms. . It is recommended that tests developed with local normative samples be used to assess for IQ.


Background

Examining the trajectory of cognitive abilities in late life is difficult because of the long time required for significant change to occur and the confounding influences of baseline ability, cohort, dropout and practice.

Purpose

The aim is to describe cognitive trajectories in late life by estimating the influence of age and practice and by accounting for the potential confounding attributable to ‘Flynn’ and ‘Mathew’ effects.

Methods

We examine repeated measures of fluid intelligence (IQ) in 751 volunteers' ages 62 through 83 years sampled from the Aberdeen birth cohorts of 1921 and 1936 for whom archived childhood IQ data provided a rare insight into early life ability. Aging trajectories in fluid intelligence were estimated using Raven's Standardized Progressive Matrices (RPM). Data were analyzed using linear mixed models.

Results

We estimate that on average RPM decreases annually by over one-half point (age effect). There is also an initial increase of about two points from the first to second test occasion that the test is taken and this may be attributed to practice. Comparisons between birth cohorts suggest that the ‘Flynn’ effect influences our data and that its size was significantly larger in late life. We found no evidence of the ‘Mathew’ effect in late life.

Conclusions

Cognitive trajectory of fluid ability in late life is a mixture of practice and decline. The influence of practice appears to be greatest after the first repeat testing. Modeling late life decline in this way will enable intervention studies to be performed in normal and prodromal dementia populations more efficiently.


3. Results

We began by investigating the correlations between children’s age, SRPM performances, and response times (RTs). The latter, initially expressed in milliseconds, showed a highly skewed distribution (skewness = 5.06). RTs were then log transformed, and the new variable (Log.RT) showed close to normal distribution (skewness = 0.4). The log transformation is known as an efficient way to deal with reaction times asymmetrical distributions [23] and was preferred to the inverse transformation because it does not reverse the scale, which makes it easier to read the graphs. Descriptive statistics in Table 1 shows that SRPM performances increased as a function of age, with comparable levels of between-subject variability from grade 2 to 5. The correlational analysis includes the individual mean overall Log.RT, as well as individual mean Log.RTs for easy items, intermediate items, and difficult items. Items were ranked according to the item difficulty parameter, which was one minus the success rate for the whole dataset. A modulation index was also computed as the within-participant correlation between the individual RT by item and item difficulty. A participant with short RTs for easy items and longer RTs for difficult items was thus characterized by a high positive correlation reflecting high modulation. Conversely, the absence of modulation led to an index close to zero. This individual modulation index was then correlated with the children’s age and total score on the short-form SRPM, as shown in Table 2 .

Table 1

Descriptive statistics mean (standard deviation) of age, short-form version of the standard matrices (SRPM) performances, response times (RTs) by grade group.


Raven's Progressive Matrices

Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings. It is usually a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence.[1] It is the most common and popular test administered to groups ranging from 5-year-olds to the elderly.[2] It is made of 60 multiple choice questions, listed in order of difficulty.[2] This format is designed to measure the test taker's reasoning ability, the eductive ("meaning-making") component of Spearman's g (g is often referred to as general intelligence). The tests were originally developed by John C. Raven in 1936.[3] In each test item, the subject is asked to identify the missing element that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name.

Problem structure

All of the questions on the Raven's progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from and fill in the missing piece.[4]

Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary tests were originally developed for use in research into the genetic and environmental origins of cognitive ability. Raven thought that the tests commonly in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results difficult to interpret. Accordingly, he set about developing simple measures of the two main components of Spearman's g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity (known as eductive ability) and the ability to store and reproduce information (known as reproductive ability).

Raven's tests of both were developed with the aid of what later became known as item response theory.

Raven first published his Progressive Matrices in the United Kingdom in 1938. His three sons established Scotland-based test publisher J C Raven Ltd. in 1972. In 2004, Harcourt Assessment, Inc. a division of Harcourt Education acquired J C Raven Ltd. Harcourt was later acquired by Pearson PLC.

The Matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different ability:

  • Standard Progressive Matrices: These were the original form of the matrices, first published in 1938. The booklet comprises five sets (A to E) of 12 items each (e.g., A1 through A12), with items within a set becoming increasingly difficult, requiring ever greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze information. All items are presented in black ink on a white background.[4]
  • Colored Progressive Matrices: Designed for children aged 5 through 11 years-of-age, the elderly, and mentally and physically impaired individuals. This test contains sets A and B from the standard matrices, with a further set of 12 items inserted between the two, as set Ab. Most items are presented on a coloured background to make the test visually stimulating for participants. However the very last few items in set B are presented as black-on-white in this way, if a subject exceeds the tester's expectations, transition to sets C, D, and E of the standard matrices is eased.[4]
  • Advanced Progressive Matrices: The advanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as one set of 12 (set I), and another of 36 (set II). Items are again presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above-average intelligence.[4]

In addition, "parallel" forms of the standard and coloured progressive matrices were published in 1998. This was to address the problem of the Raven's Matrices being too well known in the general population. Items in the parallel tests have been constructed so that average solution rates to each question are identical for the classic and parallel versions. A revised version of the SPM &ndash the Standard Progressive Matrices Plus &ndash was published at the same time. This was based on the "parallel" version but, although the test was the same length, it had more difficult items in order to restore the discrimination that the original SPM had among more able adolescents and young adults when it was first published. This new test, developed with the aid of better sampling arrangements and developments in the procedures available to implement the item response theory, has turned out to have exemplary test properties.

The tests were developed for research purposes. Because of their independence of language and reading and writing skills, and the simplicity of their use and interpretation, they quickly found widespread practical application. For example, all entrants to the British armed forces from 1942 onwards took a twenty-minute version of the SPM, and potential officers took a specially adapted version as part of British War Office Selection Boards. The routine administration of what became the Standard Progressive Matrices to all entrants (conscripts) to many military services throughout the world (including the Soviet Union) continued at least until the present century. It was by bringing together these data that James R. Flynn was able to place the intergenerational increase in scores beyond reasonable doubt.[5] Flynn's path-breaking publications on IQ gains around the world have led to the phenomenon of the gains being known as the Flynn effect. Among Robert L. Thorndike[6] and other researchers who preceded Flynn in finding evidence of IQ score gains was John Raven,[7] reporting on studies with the RPM.

A 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with Asperger syndrome, a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher than other individuals on Raven's tests.[8] Another 2007 study provided evidence that individuals with classic autism, a low-functioning autism spectrum disorder, score higher in Raven's tests than in Wechsler tests. In addition, the individuals with classic autism were providing correct answers to the Raven's test in less time than individuals without autism, although erring as often.[9][10]

The Triple Nine Society, a high IQ society, used to accept the Advanced Progressive Matrices as one of their admission tests. They required a score of at least 35 out of 36 on or before June 2017 on the RAPM.[11] The International Society for Philosophical Enquiry (ISPE) accepts the RAPM as a qualification for admission,[12] and so does the International High IQ Society.[13]

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Raven's Progressive Matrices".


Just released - IQ Test - What is your wisdom?

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. Results are adjusted according to the age group.
There are many tests of intelligence.

The application is based on the Raven test.

The Raven test includes sixty questions. The application has three options - a full test consisting of 60 questions, a moderate test with 30 questions and a quick test, which is shortened to 15 questions.

The test time is limited to 40 minutes for the full test, 20 minutes for the intermediate test and 10 minutes for the short test.
The results of the test - the IQ distribution usually produces a bell graph similar to a normal distribution.
The average IQ is 100. The highest score is 175 and the lowest is 25.

Only the results of the full test are reliable. Short-term tests were created for people who do not want to spend 40 minutes and yet to be tested. At these points, it is important to take into account that the grade received is inaccurate and unreliable.

Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales were developed for use in fundamental research into the genetic and environmental determinants of ‘‘intelligence.’’
The Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) tests (of which there are several versions) are made up of a series of diagrams or designs with a part missing.
Those taking the tests are expected to select the correct part to complete the designs from a number of options printed beneath.
Most of the tests in this app was conducted with the Standard Progressive Matrices Test.

It is important to note that the SPM was, from the start, known to have both certain strengths and limitations.
Its strengths were that it could be used with respondents of all ages from early childhood to old age and was of such a length that it could reasonably be administered in homes, schools, and workplaces.
Scores are converted into age adjusted IQ according to Raven's Matrices.


PSYC4121 - Week 3 & Week 4

•WISC-V: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (5th edition). For 6-16 year olds.

•WAIS-IV: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (4th edition). For 16 upwards.

a) Processing Speed, Working Memory, Visual-Spatial, Fluid Reasoning and Verbal Comprehension

b) Fluid reasoning, Crystallized Intelligence, Quantitative reasoning, Visual-Spatial and Visual-Spatial reasoning

c) Crystallized Intelligence, Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Verbal Comprehension

•No language needed (can in principle be used to compare
intelligence of people who speak different languages).

•Empirical validity 1: test scores increase with age in the predicted way. (assumption that peoples vocab in general increases with age)

•Empirical validity 2 (convergent validity): correlates well with other established vocabulary tests, and also measures of oral language, and reading.

• This reduced the list to 171 trait names.
• Students were asked to rate their friends on these 171 traits. These data was put into a factor analysis, which reduced the traits to 36.

• 567 True-False questions
- 10 clinical scales (10 criterion groups):
(1) hypochondriasis (exaggerate health problems)
(2) depression,
(3) hysteria,
(4) psychopathic deviate,
(5)masculinity/femininity,
(6) paranoia,
(7) psychasthenia (oldfashioned term roughly equivalent to obsessive-compulsive disorder),
(8) schizophrenia,
(9) hypomania (as in manicdepressive disorder),
(10) social introversion.

• Response style (e.g. acquiescence - the willing to choose "True") affects scores (could do with more reversed items).

• Many demographic variables correlate with MMPI scales (age, gender, socio-economic status, race, intelligence, education) which has implications for interpretation.


Watch the video: IQ TEST matrix 1-19 SOLVED AND EXPLAINED (January 2022).